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This test method measures the formaldehyde concentration in air and emission rate from wood products containing formaldehyde by the use of a large chamber under specific test conditions of temperature and relative humidity, or conditions designed to simulate product use. This method employs a single set of environmental conditions but different product loading ratios to assess formaldehyde concentrations in air and emission rates from certain wood products. The conditions controlled in the procedure are the conditioning of specimens prior to testing, exposed surface area of the specimens in the test chamber, test chamber temperature and relative humidity, number of air changes per hour, and air circulation within the chamber. At the end of a specified time period in the test chamber, the air is sampled, and the concentration of formaldehyde in the air and emission rate are determined.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
Significance and Use
Significance and Use:
Limitations on formaldehyde concentrations in air have been established for some building products permanently installed in manufactured and conventional homes. This test method provides a standard means of testing typical product sizes, such as 1.2 by 2.4 m (4 by 8 ft) sheets, at product loadings consistent with product end use.
Summary of Test Method:
This test method incorporates a chamber of 22 m3 (800 ft3) minimum size to evaluate formaldehyde concentrations in air and emission rates from building products over a specified duration of time. This test method employs a single set of environmental conditions but different product loading ratios to assess formaldehyde concentrations in air and emission rates from certain wood products. Conditions controlled in the procedure are as follows:
Conditioning of specimens prior to testing,
Exposed surface area of the specimens in the test chamber,
Test chamber temperature and relative humidity,
Number of air changes per hour, and
Air circulation within the chamber.
At the end of a 16 to 20-h period in the test chamber, the air is sampled and the concentration of formaldehyde in air and emission rate are determined.
Note 3—Care must be exercised in the extension of the results to formaldehyde concentrations in air and emission rates from products under different conditions of air change rate or loading ratio, or both.
1.1 This test method measures the formaldehyde concentration in air and emission rate from wood products containing formaldehyde under conditions designed to simulate product use (see 11.5 and Note 9). The concentration in air and emission rate is determined in a large chamber under specific test conditions of temperature and relative humidity. The general procedures are also intended for testing product combinations at product-loading ratios and at air-exchange rates typical of the indoor environment (1). The products tested, the loading ratios and the air exchange rates employed are described in the test report.
1.2 This test method determines the average formaldehyde concentration in air and emission rate from a number of large size samples. The average concentration and emission rate reported, thus, will not provide information on higher or lower emitting panels in the test lot.
1.3 This method is primarily used for testing newly manufactured panel products that are shipped for testing either seal-wrapped in polyethylene or with waster sheets, or with both. When this test method is used for evaluating other than newly manufactured panel products (after original application, installation or use), the method of packaging and shipping the product for testing shall be described in the test report.
1.4 The quantity of formaldehyde in the air sample taken from the chamber is determined by an adaptation of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) chromotropic acid test procedure. If another analytical procedure is used to determine the quantity of formaldehyde in the air sample, that procedure shall give results of equivalent or greater accuracy and precision than the adapted chromotropic acid procedure. Detailed procedures based on acetylacetone, pararosaniline (see Test Method ), 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) (see Test Method D5197) and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazoline (MBTH) (see Test Method D5014) have been found to give results equivalent or greater in accuracy and precision than chromotropic acid. The test report shall note the analytical procedure employed.
Note 1— The chromotropic acid analytical procedure described in this test method is applicable for testing urea-formaldehyde bonded wood products. According to NIOSH (4th Edition, 8/15/94), the low end of the working range for the chromotropic acid analytical procedure is 0.02 ppm. A more sensitive analytical procedure is recommended for testing wood panel products where formaldehyde concentrations in air are anticipated to be at or below this level. DNPH is recognized as such a method.
1.5 This test method is used to determine compliance with requirements such as those established for building materials by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Rules and Regulations, HUD 24 CFR 3280, for manufactured housing and by Minnesota Statutes Section 144.495. Measurement results are also used for comparing concentrations in air and emission rates from different wood products (2) and for determining compliance with product standards.
1.6 This test method is not designed for determining general organic emissions from all indoor materials and products.
Note 2—ASTM Committee D22 has developed Guide D5116 which describes small-scale environmental equipment and techniques suitable for determining organic emissions and emission rates from materials and products used indoors.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see Section 7.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D3195 Practice for Rotameter Calibration
D5014 Test Method for Measurement of Formaldehyde in Indoor Air (Passive Sampler Methodology)
D5116 Guide for Small-Scale Environmental Chamber Determinations of Organic Emissions from Indoor Materials/Products
D5197 Test Method for Determination of Formaldehyde and Other Carbonyl Compounds in Air (Active Sampler Methodology)
D5221 Test Method for Continuous Measurement of Formaldehyde in Air
E77 Test Method for Inspection and Verification of Thermometers
E220 Test Method for Calibration of Thermocouples By Comparison Techniques
E337 Test Method for Measuring Humidity with a Psychrometer (the Measurement of Wet- and Dry-Bulb Temperatures)
E741 Test Method for Determining Air Change in a Single Zone by Means of a Tracer Gas Dilution
HUD DocumentHUD24CFR3280 Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards, 24, CFR 3280, Federal Register, Vol 49, No. 155, August 8, 1984
ANSI StandardsANSIA208.2–200 Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) for Interior Applications
Other DocumentMinnesotaStatutesSec 325F.18 and 325F.181, Formaldehyde Gases in Building Materials, 1986
ICS Number Code 79.060.20 (Fibre and particle boards)