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Significance and Use
5.1 This test method addresses the fundamental aspects of piloted ignition and flame spread. The procedure is suitable for the derivation of relevant material flammability parameters that include minimum exposure levels for ignition, thermal-inertia values, and flame-spread properties.
5.2 This test method is used to measure some material-flammability properties that are scientifically constant and compatible and to derive specific properties that allow the prediction and explanation of the flame-spread characteristics of materials. They are considered effective properties that are dependent on the correlations used and when combined with theory can be used over a wide range of fire conditions for predicting material ignition and flame-spread behavior.
5.3 Do not use this test method for products that do not have planar, or nearly planar, external surfaces and those products and assemblies in which physical performance such as joint separation and fastening methods has a significant influence on flame propagation in actual fire conditions.
5.4 In this procedure, the specimens are subjected to one or more specific sets of laboratory test conditions. If different test conditions are substituted or the end-use conditions are changed, it is not always possible by or from this test method to predict changes in the fire-test-response characteristics measured. Therefore, the results are valid only for the fire test exposure conditions described in this procedure (see also 1.6).
1.1 This fire test response standard determines material properties related to piloted ignition of a vertically oriented sample under a constant and uniform heat flux and to lateral flame spread on a vertical surface due to an externally applied radiant-heat flux.
1.2 The results of this test method provide a minimum surface flux and temperature necessary for ignition ( q˙"o,ig, Tig) and for lateral spread ( q˙"o,s, Ts,min), an effective material thermal inertia value (kρc), and a flame-heating parameter (Φ) pertinent to lateral flame spread.
1.3 The results of this test method are potentially useful to predict the time to ignition, t ig, and the velocity, V, of lateral flame spread on a vertical surface under a specified external flux without forced lateral airflow. Use the equations in Appendix X1 that govern the ignition and flame-spread processes and which have been used to correlate the data.
1.4 This test method is potentially useful to obtain results of ignition and flame spread for materials. Data are reported in units for convenient use in current fire growth models.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see Section 7.
1.8 Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed in conducting these tests.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E84 Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials
E162 Test Method for Surface Flammability of Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source
E176 Terminology of Fire Standards
E286 Test Method for Surface Flammability of Building Materials Using an 8-ft (2.44-m) Tunnel Furnace
E648 Test Method for Critical Radiant Flux of Floor-Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source
E970 Test Method for Critical Radiant Flux of Exposed Attic Floor Insulation Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source
E1317 Test Method for Flammability of Marine Surface Finishes
ICS Number Code 13.220.50 (Fire-resistance of building materials and elements); 91.100.01 (Construction materials)