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Significance and Use
These reference radiographs are designed so that acceptance standards, which may be developed for particular requirements, can be specified in terms of these radiographs. The radiographs are of castings that were produced under conditions designed to produce the discontinuities. The reference radiographs are intended to be used for casting thickness ranges in accordance with Table 1 and Table 2.
1.1 The reference radiographs provided in the adjunct to this standard are reproductions of original radiographs and are supplied as a means for establishing some of the categories and severity levels of discontinuities in titanium castings that may be revealed by radiographic examination. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct reference radiographs which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They should be used in accordance with contractual specifications.
Note 1—The original radiographs produced for Volume I were taken with X-rays in the range of 110 KV to 220 KV. The original radiographs produced for Volume II were taken with X-rays in the range of 200 K to 340 KV.
1.2 These film reference radiographs are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in titanium castings when performing digital radiography. If performing digital radiography of titanium castings, refer to Digital Reference Image Standard E2669.
1.3 These reference radiographs consist of two volumes. Volume I, described in Table 1, is applicable to a wall thickness of up to 1 in. (0 to 25.4 mm). Volume II, described in Table 2, is applicable to a wall thickness of over 1 in. to 2 in. (25.4 mm to 50.8 mm). The standard may be used, where there is no other applicable standard, for other thicknesses for which agreement has been reached between purchaser and manufacturer.
Note 2—The reference radiographs are not impacted by this revision. There have been no revisions to the adjunct reference radiographs since original issue. The adjunct reference radiographs of any issue remain valid and may be used to this standard.
1.4 The plates produced to serve for use in this standard were purposely cast to exhibit the desired discontinuity. The plates were cast using different processes as shown in Table 1 and Table 2. Hot isostatic pressing was not used on any of the plates.
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E94 Guide for Radiographic Examination
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
E2669 Digital Reference Images for Titanium Castings
ICS Number Code 77.040.20 (Non-destructive testing of metals); 77.150.50 (Titanium products)