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Significance and Use
When uniaxial force is applied to a solid, it deforms in the direction of the applied force, but also expands or contracts laterally depending on whether the force is tensile or compressive. If the solid is homogeneous and isotropic, and the material remains elastic under the action of the applied force, the lateral strain bears a constant relationship to the axial strain. This constant, called Poisson's ratio, is an intrinsic material property just like Young's modulus and Shear modulus.
Poisson's ratio is used for design of structures where all dimensional changes resulting from application of force need to be taken into account, and in the application of the generalized theory of elasticity to structural analysis.
In this test method, the value of Poisson's ratio is obtained from strains resulting from uniaxial stress only.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of Poisson's ratio from tension tests of structural materials at room temperature. This test method is limited to specimens of rectangular section and to materials in which and stresses at which creep is negligible compared to the strain produced immediately upon loading.
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E111 Test Method for Youngs Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus
E1012 Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
ICS Number Code 19.060 (Mechanical testing)