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Significance and Use
5.1 Refer to Practice E261 for a general discussion of the determination of decay rates, reaction rates, and neutron fluence rates with threshold detectors (1-29).3 Refer to Practice E1006, Practice E185 and Guide E1018 for the use and application of results obtained by this test method.(34-36)
5.2 The half-life of 93mNb is 5730 ± 220 days (30) and has a K X-ray emission probability of 0.1099 ± 0.0025 per decay (30). The Kα and Kβ X-rays of niobium are at 16.5213–16.152 and 18.618–18.953 keV, respectively. The recommended 93Nb (n,n′)93mNb cross section comes from the IRDF-90 cross section compendium (31), was drawn from the RRDF-98 cross section evaluations (37) and is shown in Fig. 1.
5.3 Chemical dissolution of the irradiated niobium to produce very low mass-per-unit area sources is an effective way to obtain consistent results. The direct counting of foils or wires can produce satisfactory results provided appropriate methods and interpretations are employed. It is possible to use liquid scintillation methods to measure the niobium activity provided the radioactive material can be kept uniformly in solution and appropriate corrections can be made for interfering activities.
5.4 The measured reaction rates can be used to correlate neutron exposures, provide comparison with calculated reaction rates, and determine neutron fluences. Reaction rates can be determined with greater accuracy than fluence rates because of the current uncertainty in the cross section versus energy shape.
5.5 The 93Nb(n,n′)93mNb reaction has the desirable properties of monitoring neutron exposures related to neutron damage of nuclear facility structural components. It has an energy response range corresponding to the damage function of steel and has a half-life sufficiently long to allow its use in very long exposures (up to about 40 years). Monitoring long exposures is useful in determining the long-term integrity of nuclear facility components.
1.3 With suitable techniques, fast-neutron reaction rates for neutrons with energy distribution similar to fission neutrons can be determined in fast-neutron fluences above about 1016 cm−2. In the presence of high thermal-neutron fluence rates (>1012cm−2·s−1), the transmutation of 93mNb due to neutron capture should be investigated. In the presence of high-energy neutron spectra such as are associated with fusion and spallation sources, the transmutation of 93mNb by reactions such as (n,2n) may occur and should be investigated.
1.4 Procedures for other fast-neutron monitors are referenced in Practice E261.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
E170 Terminology Relating to Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry
E181 Test Methods for Detector Calibration and Analysis of Radionuclides
E185 Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels
E261 Practice for Determining Neutron Fluence, Fluence Rate, and Spectra by Radioactivation Techniques
E262 Test Method for Determining Thermal Neutron Reaction Rates and Thermal Neutron Fluence Rates by Radioactivation Techniques
E844 Guide for Sensor Set Design and Irradiation for Reactor Surveillance, E 706 (IIC)
E944 Guide for Application of Neutron Spectrum Adjustment Methods in Reactor Surveillance, E 706 (IIA)
E1005 Test Method for Application and Analysis of Radiometric Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E 706 (IIIA)
E1006 Practice for Analysis and Interpretation of Physics Dosimetry Results for Test Reactors, E 706(II)
E1018 Guide for Application of ASTM Evaluated Cross Section Data File, Matrix E706 (IIB)
ICS Number Code 27.120.01 (Nuclear energy in general)
UNSPSC Code 26140000(Atomic and nuclear energy machinery and equipment)
ASTM E1297-08(2013), Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Niobium, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.orgBack to Top