ASTM E1231 - 10

    Standard Practice for Calculation of Hazard Potential Figures-of-Merit for Thermally Unstable Materials

    Active Standard ASTM E1231 | Developed by Subcommittee: E27.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 14.02


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    Significance and Use

    This practice provides nine figures-of-merit which may be used to estimate the relative thermal hazard potential of thermally unstable materials. Since numerous assumptions must be made in order to obtain these figures-of-merit, care must be exercised to avoid too rigorous interpretation (or even misapplication) of the results.

    This practice may be used for comparative purposes, specification acceptance, and research. It should not be used to predict actual performance.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers the calculation of hazard potential figures-of-merit for exothermic reactions, including:

    (1) Time-to-thermal-runaway,

    (2) Time-to-maximum-rate,

    (3) Critical half thickness,

    (4) Critical temperature,

    (5) Adiabatic decomposition temperature rise,

    (6) Explosion potential,

    (7) Shock sensitivity,

    (8) Instantaneous power density, and

    (9) NFPA instability rating.

    1.2 The kinetic parameters needed in this calculation may be obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves by methods described in other documents.

    1.3 This technique is the best applicable to simple, single reactions whose behavior can be described by the Arrhenius equation and the general rate law. For reactions which do not meet these conditions, this technique may, with caution, serve as an approximation.

    1.4 The calculations and results of this practice might be used to estimate the relative degree of hazard for experimental and research quantities of thermally unstable materials for which little experience and few data are available. Comparable calculations and results performed with data developed for well characterized materials in identical equipment, environment, and geometry are key to the ability to estimate relative hazard.

    1.5 The figures-of-merit calculated as described in this practice are intended to be used only as a guide for the estimation of the relative thermal hazard potential of a system (materials, container, and surroundings). They are not intended to predict actual thermokinetic performance. The calculated errors for these parameters are an intimate part of this practice and must be provided to stress this. It is strongly recommended that those using the data provided by this practice seek the consultation of qualified personnel for proper interpretation.

    1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.7 There is no ISO standard equivalent to this practice.

    1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C177 Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus

    C518 Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus

    E473 Terminology Relating to Thermal Analysis and Rheology

    E537 Test Method for The Thermal Stability of Chemicals by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    E698 Test Method for Arrhenius Kinetic Constants for Thermally Unstable Materials Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and the Flynn/Wall/Ozawa Method

    E793 Test Method for Enthalpies of Fusion and Crystallization by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    E1269 Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    E1952 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity by Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    E2041 Test Method for Estimating Kinetic Parameters by Differential Scanning Calorimeter Using the Borchardt and Daniels Method

    E2070 Test Method for Kinetic Parameters by Differential Scanning Calorimetry Using Isothermal Methods

    Other Standards

    NFPA704 Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, 1996 Available from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471, http://www.nfpa.org.


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.230 (Explosion protection)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    DOI: 10.1520/E1231-10

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