Significance and Use
The comparative method of measurement of thermal conductivity is especially useful for engineering materials including ceramics, polymers, metals and alloys, refractories, carbons, and graphites including combinations and other composite forms of each.
Proper design of a guarded-longitudinal system is difficult and it is not practical in a method of this type to try to establish details of construction and procedures to cover all contingencies that might offer difficulties to a person without technical knowledge concerning theory of heat flow, temperature measurements, and general testing practices. Standardization of this test method is not intended to restrict in any way the future development by research workers of new or methods or improved procedures. However, new or improved techniques must be thoroughly tested. Requirements for qualifying an apparatus are outlined in Section 10.
1.1 This test method describes a steady state technique for the determination of the thermal conductivity, λ, of homogeneous-opaque solids (see Notes 1 and 2). This test method is for materials with effective thermal conductivities in the approximate range 0.2 < λ < 200 W/(m·K) over the approximate temperature range between 90 and 1300 K. It can be used outside these ranges with decreased accuracy.
Note 1—For purposes of this technique, a system is homogeneous if the apparent thermal conductivity of the specimen, λA, does not vary with changes of thickness or cross-sectional area by more than ±5 %. For composites or heterogeneous systems consisting of slabs or plates bonded together, the specimen should be more than 20 units wide and 20 units thick, respectively, where a unit is the thickness of the thickest slab or plate, so that diameter or length changes of one-half unit will affect the apparent λA by less than ±5 %. For systems that are non-opaque or partially transparent in the infrared, the combined error due to inhomogeneity and photon transmission should be less than ±5 %. Measurements on highly transparent solids must be accompanied with infrared absorption coefficient information, or the results must be reported as apparent thermal conductivity, λA.
Note 2—This test method may also be used to evaluate the contact thermal conductance/resistance of materials.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C177 Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus
C408 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Whiteware Ceramics
C1045 Practice for Calculating Thermal Transmission Properties Under Steady-State Conditions
D4351 Test Method for Measuring the Thermal Conductivity of Plastics by the Evaporation-Calorimetric Method
E220 Test Method for Calibration of Thermocouples By Comparison Techniques
E230 Specification and Temperature-Electromotive Force (EMF) Tables for Standardized Thermocouples
F433 Practice for Evaluating Thermal Conductivity of Gasket Materials
Copper alloy; Glass; Graphite; Guarded heat flow technique; Heat flow; Heating tests--chemicals/materials; Insulation; Iron; Longitudinal profile; Metals and metallic materials; Meter bar materials; Polymers; Refractories (general); Sensors; Silica content; Solid phase materials; Thermal conductance/conductivity; Thermal insulating materials; Thermal transmission properties; Tungsten; Alloys; Austenitic steel; Carbon; Ceramic materials/applications; Comparison techniques; Copper
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Citing ASTM Standards
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