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Significance and Use
5.1 In structures containing gradients in either toughness or stress, a crack may initiate in a region of either low toughness or high stress, or both, and arrest in another region of either higher toughness or lower stress, or both. The value of the stress intensity factor during the short time interval in which a fast-running crack arrests is a measure of the ability of the material to arrest such a crack. Values of the stress intensity factor of this kind, which are determined using dynamic methods of analysis, provide a value for the crack-arrest fracture toughness which will be termed KA in this discussion. Static methods of analysis, which are much less complex, can often be used to determine K at a short time (1 to 2 ms) after crack arrest. The estimate of the crack-arrest fracture toughness obtained in this fashion is termed K a. When macroscopic dynamic effects are relatively small, the difference between KA and Ka is also small (1-4). For cracks propagating under conditions of crack-front plane-strain, in situations where the dynamic effects are also known to be small, KIa determinations using laboratory-sized specimens have been used successfully to estimate whether, and at what point, a crack will arrest in a structure (5, 6). Depending upon component design, loading compliance, and the crack jump length, a dynamic analysis of a fast-running crack propagation event may be necessary in order to predict whether crack arrest will occur and the arrest position. In such cases, values of K Ia determined by this test method can be used to identify those values of K below which the crack speed is zero. More details on the use of dynamic analyses can be found in Ref (4).
5.2.1 In materials research and development, to establish in quantitative terms significant to service performance, the effects of metallurgical variables (such as composition or heat treatment) or fabrication operations (such as welding or forming) on the ability of a new or existing material to arrest running cracks.
1.1 This test method employs a side-grooved, crack-line-wedge-loaded specimen to obtain a rapid run-arrest segment of flat-tensile separation with a nearly straight crack front. This test method provides a static analysis determination of the stress intensity factor at a short time after crack arrest. The estimate is denoted Ka. When certain size requirements are met, the test result provides an estimate, termed KIa, of the plane-strain crack-arrest toughness of the material.
1.2 The specimen size requirements, discussed later, provide for in-plane dimensions large enough to allow the specimen to be modeled by linear elastic analysis. For conditions of plane-strain, a minimum specimen thickness is also required. Both requirements depend upon the crack arrest toughness and the yield strength of the material. A range of specimen sizes may therefore be needed, as specified in this test method.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
E23 Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials
E208 Test Method for Conducting Drop-Weight Test to Determine Nil-Ductility Transition Temperature of Ferritic Steels
E399 Test Method for Linear-Elastic Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness KIc of Metallic Materials
E616 Terminology Relating to Fracture Testing (Discontinued 1996)
E1304 Test Method for Plane-Strain (Chevron-Notch) Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials
E1823 Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ICS Number Code 77.040.10 (Mechanical testing of metals)
UNSPSC Code 41000000(Laboratory and Measuring and Observing and Testing Equipment)
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ASTM E1221-12a, Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness,