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Significance and Use
Liquid penetrant examination methods indicate the presence, location, and, to a limited extent, the nature and magnitude of the detected discontinuities. This practice is intended primarily for portability and for localized areas of examination, utilizing minimal equipment. Surface roughness may be a limiting factor. If so, an alternate process, such as water-wash visible or post-emulsified penetrant should be considered when grinding or machining is not practical.
1.1 This practice covers procedures for visible penetrant examination utilizing the solvent-removable process. It is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics and certain nonporous plastics and glass.
1.2 This practice also provides a reference:
1.2.1 By which a visible penetrant examination method using the solvent-removable process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness.
1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the visible, solvent-removable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreement by the purchaser and the manufacturer regarding specific techniques is strongly recommended.
1.2.3 For use in the organization of the facilities and personnel concerned with the liquid penetrant examination.
1.3 This practice does not indicate or suggest standards for evaluation of the indications obtained. It should be noted, however, that after indications have been produced, they must be interpreted or classified and then evaluated. For this purpose there must be a separate code, specification, or a specific agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of indications considered acceptable, and those considered unacceptable.
1.4 All areas of this practice may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization.
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are regarded as standard. SI units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D516 Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Water
D808 Test Method for Chlorine in New and Used Petroleum Products (High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method)
E165 Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examination for General Industry
E433 Reference Photographs for Liquid Penetrant Inspection
E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
ASNT DocumentsANSI/ASNT-CP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel
Military StandardMIL-STD-410 Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn: NPODS.
AIA StandardNAS410 Certification and Qualification of Nondestructive Test Personnel Available from the Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc., 1250 Eye Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20005.
ICS Number Code 19.100 (Non-destructive testing)