ASTM E1193 - 97(2012)

    Standard Guide for Conducting Daphnia magna Life-Cycle Toxicity Tests

    Active Standard ASTM E1193 | Developed by Subcommittee: E50.47

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.06


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Protection of an aquatic species requires prevention of unacceptable effects on populations in natural habitats. Toxicity tests are conducted to provide data that may be used to predict what changes in numbers and weights of individuals might result from similar exposure to the test material in the natural aquatic environment. Information might also be obtained on the effects of the material on the health of the species.

    5.2 Results of life-cycle tests with D. magna are used to predict chronic effects likely to occur on daphnids in field situations as a result of exposure under comparable conditions.

    5.2.1 Life-cycle tests with D. magna are used to compare the chronic sensitivities of different species, the chronic toxicities of different materials, and study the effects of various environmental factors on the results of such tests.

    5.2.2 Life-cycle tests with D. magna are used to assess the risk of materials to aquatic organisms (see Guide E1023) or derive water quality criteria for aquatic organisms (1).3

    5.2.3 Life-cycle tests with D. magna are used to predict the results of chronic toxicity tests on the same test material with the same species in another water or with another species in the same or a different water. Most such predictions take into account the results of acute toxicity tests, and so the usefulness of the results of a life-cycle test with D. magna is greatly increased by also reporting the results of an acute toxicity test (see Guide E729) conducted under the same conditions. In addition to conducting an acute toxicity test with unfed D. magna, it may be desirable to conduct an acute test in which the daphnids are fed the same as in the life-cycle test to see if the presence of that concentration of that food affects the results of the acute test and the acute-chronic ratio (ACR) (see 10.3.1).

    5.2.4 Life-cycle tests are used to evaluate the biological availability of, and structure-activity relationships between, test materials and test organisms.

    5.3 Results of life-cycle tests with D. magna might be influenced by temperature (2), quality of food, composition of dilution water, condition of test organisms, and other factors.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for obtaining laboratory data concerning the adverse effects of a test material (added to dilution water, but not to food) on Daphnia magna Straus, 1820, during continuous exposure throughout a life-cycle using the renewal or flow-through techniques. These procedures also should be useful for conducting life-cycle toxicity tests with other invertebrate species, although modifications might be necessary.

    1.2 These procedures are applicable to most chemicals, either individually or in formulations, commercial products, or known mixtures. With appropriate modifications, these procedures can be used to conduct tests on temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and on such materials as aqueous effluents (also see Guide E1192), leachates, oils, particulate matter, sediments, and surface waters. The technique, (renewal or flow-through), will be selected based on the chemical characteristics of the test material such as high oxygen demand, volatility, susceptibility to transformation (biologically or chemically), or sorption to glass.

    1.3 Modification of these procedures might be justified by special needs or circumstances. Although using appropriate procedures is more important than following prescribed procedures, results of tests conducted using unusual procedures are not likely to be comparable to results of standard test procedures. Comparison of results obtained using modified and unmodified versions of these procedures might provide useful information on new concepts and procedures for conducting life-cycle toxicity tests with D. magna.

    1.4 This guide is arranged as follows:

     

     

    Section

     

     

     

     

    Referenced Documents

    2

     

    Terminology

    3

     

    Summary of Guide

    4

     

    Significance and Use

    5

     

    Apparatus

    6

     

     Facilities

    6.1

     

     Construction Materials

    6.2

     

     Test Chambers

    6.3

     

     Cleaning

    6.4

     

     Acceptability

    6.5

     

    Reagents

    7

     

     Purity of Reagents

    7.1

     

    Hazards

    8

     

    Dilution Water

    9

     

     Requirements

    9.1

     

     Source

    9.2

     

     Treatment

    9.3

     

     Characterization

    9.4

     

    Test Material

    10

     

     General

    10.1

     

     Stock Solutions

    10.2

     

     Test Concentrations(s)

    10.3

     

    Test Organisms

    11

     

     Species

    11.1

     

     Age

    11.2

     

     Source

    11.3

     

     Brood Stock

    11.4

     

     Food

    11.5

     

     Handling

    11.6

     

     Harvesting Young

    11.7

     

     Quality

    11.8

     

    Procedure

    12

     

     Experimental Design

    12.1

     

     Dissolved Oxygen

    12.2

     

     Temperature

    12.3

     

     Loading

    12.4

     

     Selection of Test System

    12.5

     

     Beginning the Test

    12.6

     

     Care and Maintenance

    12.7

     

     Feeding

    12.8

     

     Duration

    12.9

     

     Biological Data

    12.10

     

     Other Measurements

    12.11

     

    Analytical Methodology

    13

     

    Acceptability of Test

    14

     

    Calculation of Results

    15

     

    Report

    16

     

    Keywords

    17

     

    Appendixes

     

     

    Appendix X1 Statistical Guidance

     

     

    Appendix X2 Food

     


    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements are given in Section 8.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E729 Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians

    E943 Terminology Relating to Biological Effects and Environmental Fate

    E1023 Guide for Assessing the Hazard of a Material to Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses

    E1192 Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Aqueous Ambient Samples and Effluents with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 07.100.20 (Microbiology of water); 13.020.30 (Environmental impact assessment)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 77101500(Environmental impact assessment)


    DOI: 10.1520/E1193-97R12

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