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Significance and Use
The value of Young's modulus is a material property useful in design for calculating compliance of structural materials that follow Hooke's law when subjected to uniaxial loading (that is, the strain is proportional to the applied force).
For materials that follow nonlinear elastic stress-strain behavior, the value of tangent or chord modulus is useful in estimating the change in strain for a specified range in stress.
Since for many materials, Young's modulus in tension is different from Young's modulus in compression, it shall be derived from test data obtained in the stress mode of interest.
The accuracy and precision of apparatus, test specimens, and procedural steps should be such as to conform to the material being tested and to a reference standard, if available.
Precise determination of Young's modulus requires due regard for the numerous variables that may affect such determinations. These include (1) characteristics of the specimen such as orientation of grains relative to the direction of the stress, grain size, residual stress, previous strain history, dimensions, and eccentricity; (2) testing conditions, such as alignment of the specimen, speed of testing, temperature, temperature variations, condition of test equipment, ratio of error in applied force to the range in force values, and ratio of error in extension measurement to the range in extension values used in the determination; and (3) interpretation of data (see Section 9).
When the modulus determination is made at strains in excess of 0.25 %, correction should be made for changes in cross-sectional area and gage length, by substituting the instantaneous cross section and instantaneous gage length for the original values.
Compression results may be affected by barreling (see Test Methods E9). Strain measurements should therefore be made in the specimen region where such effects are minimal.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of Young's modulus, tangent modulus, and chord modulus of structural materials. This test method is limited to materials in which and to temperatures and stresses at which creep is negligible compared to the strain produced immediately upon loading and to elastic behavior.
1.2 Because of experimental problems associated with the establishment of the origin of the stress-strain curve described in 8.1, the determination of the initial tangent modulus (that is, the slope of the stress-strain curve at the origin) and the secant modulus are outside the scope of this test method.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
E9 Test Methods of Compression Testing of Metallic Materials at Room Temperature
E21 Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E231 Method for Static Determination of Youngs Modulus of Metals at Low and Elevated Temperatures
E1012 Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
ICS Number Code 19.060 (Mechanical testing)