Active Standard ASTM E1105 | Developed by Subcommittee: E06.51
Book of Standards Volume: 04.11
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
This test method is a standard procedure for determining the resistance to water penetration under uniform or cyclic static air pressure differences of installed exterior windows, skylights, curtain walls, and doors. The air-pressure differences acting across a building envelope vary greatly. These factors should be considered fully prior to specifying the test pressure difference to be used.
Note 1—In applying the results of tests by this test method, note that the performance of a wall or its components, or both, may be a function of proper installation and adjustment. In service, the performance will also depend on the rigidity of supporting construction and on the resistance of components to deterioration by various causes, vibration, thermal expansion and contraction, and so forth. It is difficult to simulate the identical complex wetting conditions that can be encountered in service, with large wind-blown water drops, increasing water drop impact pressures with increasing wind velocity, and lateral or upward moving air and water. Some designs are more sensitive than others to this upward moving water.
Note 2—This test method does not identify unobservable liquid water which may penetrate into the test specimen.
Laboratory tests are designed to give an indication of the performance of an assembly. Field performance may vary from laboratory performance since the supporting structure for the test specimen, methods of mounting, and sealing in the laboratory can only simulate the actual conditions that will exist in the building. Shipping, handling, installation, acts of subsequent trades, aging, and other environmental conditions all may have an adverse effect upon the performance of the installed product. This field test procedure provides a means for determining the performance of a product once installed in the building.
The field test may be made at the time the window, skylight, curtain-wall, or door assemblies are initially installed and before the interior of the building is finished. At this time, it is generally easier to check the interior surfaces of the assemblies for water penetration and to identify the points of penetration. The major advantage of testing when assemblies are initially installed is that errors in fabrication or installation can be readily discovered and corrections made before the entire wall with its component assemblies is completed at which time the expense of corrective work may be increased many times.
The field test may also be made after the building is completed and in service to determine whether or not reported leakage problems are due to the failure of the installed assemblies to resist water penetration at the specified static air pressure difference. Generally it is possible to conduct tests on window, skylight, and door assemblies without too much difficulty, and to identify sources of leakage. A curtain-wall assembly, on the other hand, may not be accessible from the inside without the removal of interior finished walls and ceilings. Even with removal of interior walls and ceilings, it may not be possible to observe curtain-wall surfaces behind spandrel beams. The feasibility of conducting a meaningful static air pressure difference water penetration test on an in-service building must be carefully evaluated before being specified.
Weather conditions can affect the static air pressure difference measurements. If wind gusting causes pressure fluctuation to exceed ±10 % from the specified test pressure, the test should not be conducted.
Generally it is more convenient to use an interior mounted pressure chamber from which air is exhausted to obtain a lower pressure on the interior surface of the specimen. A calibrated rack of nozzles is then used to spray water at the proper rate on the exterior surface. Under circumstances where it is desirable to use an exterior-mounted pressure chamber, the spray rack must be located in the pressure chamber and air supplied to maintain a higher pressure on the exterior surface. Exterior chambers are difficult to attach readily and seal to exterior surfaces.
Even though the equipment requirements are similar, this procedure is not intended to measure air infiltration because of the difficulty of isolating the component air leakage from the extraneous leakage through weep holes, mullion joints, trim, or other surrounding materials.<
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of installed exterior windows, curtain walls, skylights, and doors to water penetration when water is applied to the outdoor face and exposed edges simultaneously with a static air pressure at the outdoor face higher than the pressure at the indoor face.
1.2 This test method is applicable to any curtain-wall area or to windows, skylights, or doors alone. It is intended primarily for determining the resistance to water penetration through such assemblies for compliance with specified performance criteria, but it may also be used to determine the resistance to penetration through the joints between the assemblies and the adjacent construction. Other procedures may be appropriate to identify sources of leakage.
1.3 This test method addresses water penetration through a manufactured assembly. Water that penetrates the assembly, but does not result in a failure as defined herein, may have adverse effects on the performance of contained materials such as sealants and insulating or laminated glass. This test method does not address these issues.
1.4 The proper use of this test method requires a knowledge of the principles of pressure measurement.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound equivalents of SI units may be approximate.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see 7.1.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E631 Terminology of Building Constructions
ICS Number Code 91.060.50 (Doors and windows)