Significance and Use
This guide is intended to provide standardized procedures for evaluating ultrasonic search units. It is not intended to define performance and acceptance criteria, but rather to provide data from which such criteria may be established.
These procedures are intended to evaluate the characteristics of single-element piezoelectric search units.
Implementation may require more detailed procedural instructions in a format of the using facility.
The measurement data obtained may be employed by users of this guide to specify, describe, or provide a performance criteria for procurement and quality assurance, or service evaluation of the operating characteristics of ultrasonic search units. All or portions of the guide may be used as determined by the user.
The measurements are made primarily under pulse-echo conditions. To determine the relative performance of a search unit as either a transmitter or a receiver may require additional tests.
While these procedures relate to many of the significant parameters, others that may be important in specific applications may not be treated. These might include power handling capability, breakdown voltage, wear properties of contact units, radio-frequency interference, and the like.
Care must be taken to ensure that comparable measurements are made and that users of the guide follow similar procedures. The conditions specified or selected (if optional) may affect the test results and lead to apparent differences.
Interpretation of some test results, such as the shape of the frequency response curve, may be subjective. Small irregularities may be significant. Interpretation of the test results is beyond the scope of this guide.
Certain results obtained using the procedures outlined may differ from measurements made with ultrasonic test instruments. These differences may be attributed to differences in the nature of the experiment or the electrical characteristics of the instrumentation.
The pulse generator used to obtain the frequency response and time response of the search unit must have a rise time, duration, and spectral content sufficient to excite the search unit over its full bandwidth, otherwise time distortion and erroneous results may result.
1.1 This guide covers measurement procedures for evaluating certain characteristics of ultrasonic search units (also known as “transducers”) that are used with ultrasonic examination instrumentation. This guide describes means for obtaining performance data that may be used to define the acoustic and electric responses of ultrasonic search units.
1.2 The procedures are designed to measure search units as individual components (separate from the ultrasonic test instrument) using commercial search unit characterization systems or using laboratory instruments such as signal generators, pulsers, amplifiers, oscilloscopes, and waveform analyzers.
1.3 The procedures are applicable to manufacturing acceptance and incoming inspection of new search units or to periodic performance evaluation of search units throughout their service life.
1.4 The procedures in Annex A1-Annex A6 are generally applicable to ultrasonic search units operating within the 0.4 to 10 MHz range. Annex A7 is applicable to higher frequency immersion search unit evaluation. Annex A8 describes a guide for measuring sound beam profiles in metals from contact straight-beam search units. Additional Annexes, such as sound beam profiling for angle-beam search units in metal and alternate means for search unit characterization, will be added when developed.
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
aperture; bandwidth; characterization; contact testing; depth of field; focal point; frequency response; immersion testing; peak frequency; search unit; sound beam profile; time response; ultrasound; Acoustic emission (AE) testing; Bandwidth; Frequency measurements; High-frequency broadband immersion search units; Immersion--ultrasonic; Impedance; Piezoelectric acoustic emission contact sensors; Pulse-echo ultrasonic testing; Sensors; Shock excitation technique; Sinusoidal burst technique; Sound field parameters; Time response; Transducers; Ultrasonic testing; Voltage;
ICS Number Code 17.140.01 (Acoustic measurements and noise abatement in general)
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