Active Standard ASTM D974 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.06
Book of Standards Volume: 05.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
New and used petroleum products can contain basic or acidic constituents that are present as additives or as degradation products formed during service, such as oxidation products. The relative amount of these materials can be determined by titrating with acids or bases. This number, whether expressed as acid number or base number, is a measure of this amount of acidic or basic substances, respectively, in the oil
Since a variety of oxidation products contribute to the acid number and the organic acids vary widely in corrosive properties, the test cannot be used to predict corrosiveness of an oil under service conditions. No general correlation is known between acid number and the corrosive tendency of oils toward metals. Compounded engine oils can and usually do have both acid and base numbers in this test method.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of acidic or basic constituents (Note 1) in petroleum products and lubricants soluble or nearly soluble in mixtures of toluene and isopropyl alcohol. It is applicable for the determination of acids or bases whose dissociation constants in water are larger than 10−9; extremely weak acids or bases whose dissociation constants are smaller than 10−9 do not interfere. Salts react if their hydrolysis constants are larger than 10−9.
Note 1—In new and used oils, the constituents considered to have acidic characteristics include organic and inorganic acids, esters, phenolic compounds, lactones, resins, salts of heavy metals, and addition agents such as inhibitors and detergents. Similarly, constituents considered to have basic properties include organic and inorganic bases, amino compounds, salts of weak acids (soaps), basic salts of polyacidic bases, salts of heavy metals, and addition agents such as inhibitors and detergents.
Note 2—This test method is not suitable for measuring the basic constituents of many basic additive-type lubricating oils. Test Method D4739 can be used for this purpose.
1.2 This test method can be used to indicate relative changes that occur in an oil during use under oxidizing conditions. Although the titration is made under definite equilibrium conditions, the method does not measure an absolute acidic or basic property that can be used to predict performance of an oil under service conditions. No general relationship between bearing corrosion and acid or base numbers is known.
Note 3—Oils, such as many cutting oils, rustproofing oils, and similar compounded oils, or excessively dark-colored oils, that cannot be analyzed for acid number by this test method due to obscurity of the color-indicator end point, can be analyzed by Test Method D664. The acid numbers obtained by this color-indicator test method need not be numerically the same as those obtained by Test Method D664, the base numbers obtained by this color indicator test method need not be numerically the same as those obtained by Test Method D4739, but they are generally of the same order of magnitude.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D117 Guide for Sampling, Test Methods, and Specifications for Electrical Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants
D4739 Test Method for Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Hydrochloric Acid Titration
ICS Number Code 75.080 (Petroleum products in general); 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)