Active Standard ASTM D94 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.06
Book of Standards Volume: 05.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
5.1 Petroleum products can contain additives that react with alkali to form metal soaps. Fats are examples of such additives. Also, certain used engine oils, especially from turbine or internal combustion engines, can contain chemicals that will similarly react with alkali. The saponification number expresses the amount of base that will react with 1 g of sample when heated in a specific manner. This then gives an estimation of the amount of acid present in the sample, that is, any free acid originally present plus any combined (for example, in esters) that have been converted to metal soaps during the heating procedure.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the amount of constituents in petroleum products such as lubricants, additives, and transmission fluids that will saponify under the conditions of the test.
1.2 Because compounds of sulfur, phosphorus, the halogens, and certain other elements that are sometimes added to petroleum products also consume alkali and acids, the results obtained indicate the effect of these extraneous materials in addition to the saponifiable material present. Results on products containing such materials, on used internal-combustion-engine crankcase oils, and on used turbine oils must be interpreted with caution.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see Sections 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 17, and 19.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D117 Guide for Sampling, Test Methods, and Specifications for Electrical Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin
D128 Test Methods for Analysis of Lubricating Grease
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance
D6792 Practice for Quality System in Petroleum Products and Lubricants Testing Laboratories
ICS Number Code 75.080 (Petroleum products in general)