Active Standard ASTM D93 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.08
Book of Standards Volume: 05.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
5.1 The flash point temperature is one measure of the tendency of the test specimen to form a flammable mixture with air under controlled laboratory conditions. It is only one of a number of properties which must be considered in assessing the overall flammability hazard of a material.
5.2 Flash point is used in shipping and safety regulations to define flammable and combustible materials. One should consult the particular regulation involved for precise definitions of these classifications.
5.3 These test methods should be used to measure and describe the properties of materials, products, or assemblies in response to heat and an ignition source under controlled laboratory conditions and should not be used to describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of these test methods may be used as elements of a fire risk assessment which takes into account all of the factors which are pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard of a particular end use.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the flash point of petroleum products in the temperature range from 40 to 370°C by a manual Pensky-Martens closed-cup apparatus or an automated Pensky-Martens closed-cup apparatus, and the determination of the flash point of biodiesel in the temperature range of 60 to 190°C by an automated Pensky-Martens closed cup apparatus.
1.2 Procedure A is applicable to distillate fuels (diesel, biodiesel blends, kerosine, heating oil, turbine fuels), new and in-use lubricating oils, and other homogeneous petroleum liquids not included in the scope of Procedure B or Procedure C.
1.3 Procedure B is applicable to residual fuel oils, cutback residua, used lubricating oils, mixtures of petroleum liquids with solids, petroleum liquids that tend to form a surface film under test conditions, or are petroleum liquids of such kinematic viscosity that they are not uniformly heated under the stirring and heating conditions of Procedure A.
1.4 Procedure C is applicable to biodiesel (B100). Since a flash point of residual alcohol in biodiesel is difficult to observe by manual flash point techniques, automated apparatus with electronic flash point detection have been found suitable.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 6.4, 7.1, 9.3, 9.4, 11.1.2, 11.1.4, 11.1.8, 11.2.2, and 12.1.2.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D3941 Test Method for Flash Point by the Equilibrium Method With a Closed-Cup Apparatus
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
E300 Practice for Sampling Industrial Chemicals
E502 Test Method for Selection and Use of ASTM Standards for the Determination of Flash Point of Chemicals by Closed Cup Methods
ISO StandardsGuide 35 Certification of Reference Material--General and Statistical Principles
ICS Number Code 13.220.40 (Ignitability and burning behaviour of materials and products); 75.080 (Petroleum products in general); 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)