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Significance and Use
The impact test has been found useful in laboratory simulation of impacts such as those encountered in manual and mechanical handling and transportation. The impact test simulates some types of shocks that could occur in the handling of packages or shipping units and helps evaluate the ability of the package to protect the contents against these shocks. The test may also permit observation of progressive failure of a package and damage to the contents.
The test results within a given laboratory using this test method may be useful for evaluating and comparing packages. However, because of the variability of test machines that have been used in the past, especially the impact surface (backstop), it has been found that interlaboratory correlation of test results has been poor.
These procedures are not intended to simulate rail car coupling environment. Refer to Test Method D 4003 and Test Methods D 5277
This test method fulfills the requirement of ISO 2244.
Note 1—ISO 2244 may not meet the requirements for this test method.
1.1 This test method covers two procedures for conducting impact tests on loaded containers or shipping units (pallet loads), as follows:
1.1.1 Procedure A, to test the ability of a container or shipping unit to withstand impacts, and
1.1.2 Procedure B, to test the ability of a container or shipping unit or interior packing, or both, to provide protection to the contents, when subjected to impacts.
1.2 Either of these two procedures may be used to evaluate different designs of containers of the same size and carrying the same load. These procedures are suitable for testing various types of containers such as boxes, crates, barrels, drums, kegs, bags, sacks, or pails made of various materials or combinations of materials and for shipping units such as pallet loads or palletized units.
1.3 The procedures described in this test method are particularly suitable for testing large or heavily loaded containers.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Note 1 and Section 7.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D996 Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments
D4003 Test Methods for Programmable Horizontal Impact Test for Shipping Containers and Systems
D4332 Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
D5277 Test Method for Performing Programmed Horizontal Impacts Using an Inclined Impact Tester
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
ISO StandardISO2244 Horizontal Impact Test (Horizontal or Incline Plane Test: Pendulum Test) Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.
ICS Number Code 55.040 (Packaging materials and accessories)