ASTM D874 - 13a

    Standard Test Method for Sulfated Ash from Lubricating Oils and Additives

    Active Standard ASTM D874 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.01


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The sulfated ash can be used to indicate the concentration of known metal-containing additives in new oils. When phosphorus is absent, barium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium are converted to their sulfates and tin (stannic) and zinc to their oxides (Note 4). Sulfur and chlorine do not interfere, but when phosphorus is present with metals, it remains partially or wholly in the sulfated ash as metal phosphates.

    Note 4Since zinc sulfate slowly decomposes to its oxide at the ignition temperature specified in the test method, samples containing zinc can give variable results unless the zinc sulfate is completely converted to the oxide.

    5.2 Because of above inter-element interferences, experimentally obtained sulfated ash values may differ from sulfated ash values calculated from elemental analysis. The formation of such non-sulfated species is dependent on the temperature of ashing, time ashed, and the composition of metal compounds present in oils. Hence, sulfated ash requirement generally should not be used in product specifications without a clear understanding between a buyer and a seller of the unreliability of an ash value as an indicator of the total metallic compound content.4

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the sulfated ash from unused lubricating oils containing additives and from additive concentrates used in compounding. These additives usually contain one or more of the following metals: barium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, potassium, sodium, and tin. The elements sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine can also be present in combined form.

    1.2 Application of this test method to sulfated ash levels below 0.02 mass % is restricted to oils containing ashless additives. The lower limit of the test method is 0.005 mass % sulfated ash.

    Note 1This test method is not intended for the analysis of used engine oils or oils containing lead. Neither is it recommended for the analysis of nonadditive lubricating oils, for which Test Method D482 can be used.
    Note 2There is evidence that magnesium does not react the same as other alkali metals in this test. If magnesium additives are present, the data is interpreted with caution.
    Note 3There is evidence that samples containing molybdenum can give low results because molybdenum compounds are not fully recovered at the temperature of ashing.

    1.3 Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) conforming to EN 14213 and EN 14214, when tested using this test method, were shown to meet its precision.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance

    CEN Standards

    EN14213 Heating Fuels--Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME)--Requirements and Test Methods

    EN14214 Automotive Fuels--Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) for Diesel Engines--Requirements and Test Methods


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15120000(Lubricants and oils and greases and anti corrosives)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D0874

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D874-13a, Standard Test Method for Sulfated Ash from Lubricating Oils and Additives, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.org

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