Active Standard ASTM D86 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.08
Book of Standards Volume: 05.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
5.1 The basic test method of determining the boiling range of a petroleum product by performing a simple batch distillation has been in use as long as the petroleum industry has existed. It is one of the oldest test methods under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D02, dating from the time when it was still referred to as the Engler distillation. Since the test method has been in use for such an extended period, a tremendous number of historical data bases exist for estimating end-use sensitivity on products and processes.
5.2 The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives information on the composition, the properties, and the behavior of the fuel during storage and use. Volatility is the major determinant of the tendency of a hydrocarbon mixture to produce potentially explosive vapors.
5.3 The distillation characteristics are critically important for both automotive and aviation gasolines, affecting starting, warm-up, and tendency to vapor lock at high operating temperature or at high altitude, or both. The presence of high boiling point components in these and other fuels can significantly affect the degree of formation of solid combustion deposits.
1.1 This test method covers the atmospheric distillation of petroleum products using a laboratory batch distillation unit to determine quantitatively the boiling range characteristics of such products as light and middle distillates, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels with or without oxygenates (see Note 1), aviation gasolines, aviation turbine fuels, diesel fuels, biodiesel blends up to 20 %, marine fuels, special petroleum spirits, naphthas, white spirits, kerosines, and Grades 1 and 2 burner fuels.
1.5 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website—http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm—for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D323 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4953 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Gasoline and Gasoline-Oxygenate Blends (Dry Method)
D5190 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Automatic Method)
D5191 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method)
D5798 Specification for Ethanol Fuel Blends for Flexible-Fuel Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines
D5842 Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement
D5949 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Pressure Pulsing Method)
D5950 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Tilt Method)
D5985 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Rotational Method)
D6300 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias Data for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material
E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
E77 Test Method for Inspection and Verification of Thermometers
E1272 Specification for Laboratory Glass Graduated Cylinders
E1405 Specification for Laboratory Glass Distillation Flasks
ICS Number Code 75.080 (Petroleum products in general)
UNSPSC Code 15101500(Petroleum and distillates)