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Significance and Use
This test method may be used for guidance for material development to improve toughness, material comparison, quality assessment, and characterization.
The fracture toughness value provides information on the initiation of fracture in graphite containing a straight-through notch; the information on stress intensity factor beyond fracture toughness as a function of crack extension provides information on the crack propagation resistance once a fracture crack has been initiated to propagate through the test specimen.
1.1 This test method covers and provides a measure of the resistance of a graphite to crack extension at ambient temperature and atmosphere expressed in terms of stress-intensity factor, K, and strain energy release rate, G. These crack growth resistance properties are determined using beam test specimens with a straight-through sharp machined V-notch.
1.2 This test method determines the stress intensity factor, K, from applied force and gross specimen deflection measured away from the crack tip. The stress intensity factor calculated at the maximum applied load is denoted as fracture toughness, KIc, and is known as the critical stress intensity factor. If the resolution of the deflection gauge is sensitive to fracture behavior in the test specimen and can provide a measure of the specimen compliance, strain energy release rate, G, can be determined as a function of crack extension.
1.3 This test method is applicable to a variety of grades of graphite which exhibit different types of resistance to crack growth, such as growth at constant stress intensity (strain energy release rate), or growth with increasing stress intensity (strain energy release rate), or growth with decreasing stress intensity (strain energy release rate). It is generally recognized that because of the inhomogeneous microstructure of graphite, the general behavior will exhibit a mixture of all three during the test. The crack resistance behavior exhibited in the test is usually referred to as an “R-curve.”
Note 1—One difference between the procedure in this test method and test methods such as Test Method E399, which measure fracture toughness, KIc, by one set of specific operational procedures, is that Test Method E399 focuses on the start of crack extension from a fatigue precrack for metallic materials. This test method for graphite makes use of a machined notch with sharp cracking at the root of the notch because of the nature of graphite. Therefore, fracture toughness values determined with this method may not be interchanged with KIc as defined in Test Method E399.
1.4 This test method gives fracture toughness values, KIc and critical strain energy release rate, GIc for specific conditions of environment, deformation rate, and temperature. Fracture toughness values for a graphite grade can be functions of environment, deformation rate, and temperature.
1.5 This test method is divided into two major parts. The first major part is the main body of the standard, which provides general information on the test method, the applicability to materials comparison and qualification, and requirements and recommendations for fracture toughness testing. The second major part is composed of annexes, which provide information related to test apparatus and test specimen geometry.
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1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C709 Terminology Relating to Manufactured Carbon and Graphite
C1161 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
C1421 Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E337 Test Method for Measuring Humidity with a Psychrometer (the Measurement of Wet- and Dry-Bulb Temperatures)
E399 Test Method for Linear-Elastic Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness K Ic of Metallic Materials
E561 Test Method for K-R Curve Determination
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E1823 Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
E2309 Practices for Verification of Displacement Measuring Systems and Devices Used in Material Testing Machines
ICS Number Code 59.100.20 (Carbon materials)
UNSPSC Code 11101507(Graphite)