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This specification covers two grades of burner fuel consisting of triglycerides and naturally occurring constituents of triglycerides including monoglycerides, diglycerides, and free fatty acids and distinguished by the pour point. The triglyceride burner fuels, Grade TBF5 and Grade TBF6, are intended for use in commercial or industrial air or steam-atomized fuel oil burning equipment manufactured under various climatic and operating conditions for the purposes of heat generation. This specification describes the properties and limits for triglyceride burner fuels to provide acceptable performance in liquid fuel burning equipment. It also addresses significance and use, sample collection and handling, and properties that are those of greatest significance in obtaining acceptable performance of the burner. The requirements enumerated in this specification shall be determined in accordance with the following ASTM test methods except as noted: pour point (Test Method D97), flash point (Test Method D93, Procedure B, except when other methods may be prescribed by law), water and sediment (Test Method D1796), viscosity (Test Method D445), density (Test Methods D1298, D4052, D5355, or D7042), titer (Test Method D1982), acid number (Test Method D664), ash (Test Method D482), sulfur (Test Method D4294), insolubles (Grade TBF5 and Grade TBF6) (Test Method D128, Section 12, Method 1), and heating value (heat of combustion) (Test Method D240).
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification covers two grades of burner fuel consisting of triglycerides and naturally occurring constituents of triglycerides including monoglycerides, diglycerides, and free fatty acids and distinguished by the pour point. The grade designation (TBF) identifies them as triglyceride burner fuels.
1.2 The triglyceride burner fuels specified are intended for use in commercial or industrial air or steam-atomized fuel oil burning equipment manufactured from materials compatible with fuels having an acid number as specified in Table 1 and under various climatic and operating conditions for the purposes of heat generation. The fuels specified herein are not intended for blending with conventional fuel oils for this purpose. They are not intended for use in burners <0.32 GJ/h (0.3 × 106 BTU/h) such as residential burners or small pressure atomization burners nor are they intended for use in internal combustion engines or marine applications.
Note 1—For information on the significance of the terminology and test methods used in this specification, see Appendix X1.
1.3 This specification does not address the frequency with which any particular test shall be run.
1.4 Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of national or local regulations, which can be more restrictive.
1.5 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material and shall not be considered as requirements of the standard. The table in this standard references footnotes, and these are to be considered as requirements of the standard.
1.6 The values given in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
|Pour point °C (°F)||D97||<21 (70)||≥21 (70)|
|Flash point, °C (°F), min||D93||93 (200)||93 (200)|
|Water and sediment, % vol, max||D1796||2.0||2.0|
|Kinematic viscosity at 100°C, mm2/sC||D445||Report||Report|
|Density, kg/m3 @ 15°CD||D1298||Report||Report|
|Acid Number, mg KOH/g, max||D664||30.0||30.0|
|Ash, wt %, max||D482||0.15||0.15|
|Sulfur, wt %E||D4294||Report||Report|
|Gross heating value, MJ/kg (BTU/lbF), min||D240||36.1|
A The test methods indicated are the approved referee methods. Other acceptable methods are indicated in Section 8.
B Units given in parentheses are for informational purposes only.
C 1 mm2/s = 1 cSt.
D Density in kg/L at 15°C multiplied by 1000 = kg/m3.
E Local jurisdictions may limit the sulfur content in burner fuels.
F Assumes 7.6 lb/US gal.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D95 Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D128 Test Methods for Analysis of Lubricating Grease
D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D473 Test Method for Sediment in Crude Oils and Fuel Oils by the Extraction Method
D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D974 Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration
D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method)
D1796 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Fuel Oils by the Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure)
D1982 Test Method for Titer of Fatty Acids
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2709 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge
D3228 Test Method for Total Nitrogen in Lubricating Oils and Fuel Oils by Modified Kjeldahl Method
D3245 Test Method for Pumpability of Industrial Fuel Oils
D3339 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Semi-Micro Color Indicator Titration
D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
D4007 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Crude Oil by the Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure)
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4629 Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection
D5185 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D5291 Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D5347 Test Method for Determination of the Ash Content of Fats and Oils
D5355 Test Method for Specific Gravity of Oils and Liquid Fats
D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5949 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Pressure Pulsing Method)
D5950 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Tilt Method)
D6448 Specification for Industrial Burner Fuels from Used Lubricating Oils
D6823 Specification for Commercial Boiler Fuels With Used Lubricating Oils
D6892 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Robotic Tilt Method)
D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)
American Oil Chemists SocietyCd22–91 Determination of Polymerized Triglycerides by Gel-Permeation HPLC
ICS Number Code 71.080.60 (Alcohols. Ethers); 75.160.01 (Fuels in general)