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Significance and Use
This guide describes approaches which can be used to determine surface sampling strategies before any actual surface sampling occurs. The strategy selection process needs to consider a number of factors, including, but not limited to, purpose for sampling, fitness of the sampling strategy for that purpose, data quality objectives and how the data will be used, ability to execute the selected strategy, and ability of the analytical laboratory (fixed-site or in-field) to analyze the samples once they are collected.
For the purposes of sampling, and for the materials sampled, surface sampling strategies are matters of choice. Workplace sampling may be performed for single or multiple purposes. Conflicts may arise when a single sampling strategy is expected to satisfy multiple purposes.
Limitations of cost, space, power requirements, equipment, personnel, and analytical methods need to be considered to arrive at an optimum strategy for each purpose.
A strategy intended to satisfy multiple purposes will typically be a compromise among several alternatives, and will typically not be optimal for any one purpose.
The purpose or purposes for sampling should be explicitly stated before a sampling strategy is selected. Good practice, regulatory and legal requirements, cost of the sampling program, and the usefulness of the results may be markedly different for different purposes of sampling.
This guide is intended for those who are preparing to evaluate a workplace environment by collecting samples of metals or metalloids on surfaces, or who wish to obtain an understanding of what information can be obtained by such sampling.
This guide cannot take the place of sound professional judgment in development and execution of any sampling strategy. In most instances, a strategy based on a standard practice or method will need to be adjusted due to conditions encountered in the field. Documentation of any professional judgments applied to development or execution of a sampling strategy is essential.
This guide should not be used as a stand-alone document to evaluate any given contaminant or chemical species.
The surface sampling techniques described in this guide are intended for the determination of metals and metalloids on surfaces, or for the determination of loadings of embedded metallic residues in surface coverings. These techniques may not accurately reflect the transferability or bioavailability of such residues by way of dermal contact or inhalation of resuspended respirable dust.
1.1 This guide provides criteria to be used in defining strategies for sampling for metals and metalloids on surfaces for workplace health and safety monitoring or evaluation.
1.2 Guidance provided by this standard is intended for sampling of metals and metalloids on surfaces for subsequent analysis using methods such as atomic spectrometry, mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, or molecular fluorescence. Guidance for evaluation of data after sample analysis is included.
1.3 Sampling for volatile organometallic species (for example, trimethyl tin) is not within the scope of this guide.
1.4 Sampling to determine levels of metals or metalloids on the skin is not within the scope of this guide.
1.5 Sampling for airborne particulate matter is not within the scope of this guide. Guide E1370 provides information on air sampling strategies.
1.6 Where surface sampling is prescribed by law or regulation, this guide is not intended to take the place of any requirements that may be specified in such law or regulation.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres
D3670 Guide for Determination of Precision and Bias of Methods of Committee D22
D5438 Practice for Collection of Floor Dust for Chemical Analysis
D6399 Guide for Selecting Instruments and Methods for Measuring Air Quality in Aircraft Cabins
D6620 Practice for Asbestos Detection Limit Based on Counts
D6966 Practice for Collection of Settled Dust Samples Using Wipe Sampling Methods for Subsequent Determination of Metals
D7035 Test Method for Determination of Metals and Metalloids in Airborne Particulate Matter by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D7144 Practice for Collection of Surface Dust by Micro-vacuum Sampling for Subsequent Metals Determination
D7202 Test Method for Determination of Beryllium in the Workplace Using Field-Based Extraction and Optical Fluorescence Detection
D7296 Practice for Collection of Settled Dust Samples Using Dry Wipe Sampling Methods for Subsequent Determination of Beryllium and Compounds
D7439 Test Method for Determination of Elements in Airborne Particulate Matter by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
D7440 Practice for Characterizing Uncertainty in Air Quality Measurements
E1216 Practice for Sampling for Particulate Contamination by Tape Lift
E1370 Guide for Air Sampling Strategies for Worker and Workplace Protection
E1402 Guide for Sampling Design
E1542 Terminology Relating to Occupational Health and Safety
E1605 Terminology Relating to Lead in Buildings
E1613 Test Method for Determination of Lead by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS), or Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) Techniques
E1728 Practice for Collection of Settled Dust Samples Using Wipe Sampling Methods for Subsequent Lead Determination
E1792 Specification for Wipe Sampling Materials for Lead in Surface Dust
E2271 Practice for Clearance Examinations Following Lead Hazard Reduction Activities in Dwellings, and in Other Child-Occupied Facilities
ISO and European StandardsISOTR14294 Workplace AtmospheresMeasurement of dermal exposurePrinciples and methods
Other Documents40CFR745 Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention in Certain Residential Structures
ICS Number Code 13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
UNSPSC Code 93141808(Occupational health or safety services)