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Significance and Use
5.1 Excessive levels of hydrogen sulfide in the vapor phase above residual fuel oils in storage tanks can result in health hazards, violation of local occupational health and safety regulations, and public complaint. An additional concern is corrosion that can be caused by the presence of H2S during refining or other activities. Control measures to maintain safe levels of H2S require a precise method for the measurement of potentially hazardous levels of H2S in fuel oils. (Warning—Safety. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very dangerous, toxic, explosive and flammable, colorless and transparent gas which can be found in crude oil and can be formed during the manufacture of the fuel at the refinery and can be released during handling, storage, and distribution. At very low concentrations, the gas has the characteristic smell of rotten eggs. However, at higher concentrations, it causes a loss of smell, headaches, and dizziness, and at very high concentrations, it causes instantaneous death. It is strongly recommended that personnel involved in the testing for hydrogen sulfide are aware of the hazards of vapor-phase H2S and have in place appropriate processes and procedures to manage the risk of exposure.)
5.2 This test method was developed so refiners, fuel terminal operators, and independent testing laboratory personnel can rapidly and precisely measure the amount of H2S in residual fuel oils and distillate blend stocks, with a minimum of training, in a wide range of locations.
5.3 Test Method provides a simple and consistent field test method for the rapid determination of H2S in the residual fuel oils vapor phase. However it does not necessarily simulate the vapor phase H2S concentration of a fuel storage tank nor does it provide any indication of the liquid phase H2S concentration.
5.4 Test Method does measure the H2S concentration of H2S in the liquid phase, however it requires a laboratory and a skilled operator to perform the complex procedure and calculations, and does not offer any reproducibility data. This test method ( ) offers a 15 min automated test, simplicity, full precision, and a degree of portability.
5.5 H2S concentrations in the liquid and vapor phase attempt to reach equilibrium in a static system. However, this equilibrium and the related liquid and vapor concentrations can vary greatly depending on temperature and the chemical composition of the liquid phase. The equilibrium of the vapor phase is disrupted the moment a vent or access point is opened to collect a sample.
1.1 This test method covers procedures (A and B) for the determination of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) content of fuel oils such as marine residual fuels and blend stocks, with viscosity up to 3000 mm2s-1 at 50 °C, and marine distillate fuels, as measured in the liquid phase.
Note 1: Specification fuels falling within the scope of this test method are: ASTM Specification , MIL-DTL-16884, and ISO 8217.
1.2 Procedure A has been shown to eliminate interferences such as thiols (mercaptans) and alkyl sulfides. Procedure B can give elevated results if such interferences are present (see ).
Note 2: A procedure for measuring the amount of hydrogen sulfide in crude oil can be found in . Full precision for has not yet been determined.
1.3 Valid ranges for the precision are given in Table 2 and Table 3. Measurements can be made outside these ranges however precision has not been determined.
1.4 Samples containing FAME do not affect the measurement of hydrogen sulfide by this test method.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. Non-SI units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D396 Specification for Fuel Oils
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5705 Test Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Vapor Phase Above Residual Fuel Oils
D6021 Test Method for Measurement of Total Hydrogen Sulfide in Residual Fuels by Multiple Headspace Extraction and Sulfur Specific Detection
D6300 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias Data for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products and Lubricants
ISO StandardsISO 4259 Petroleum ProductsDetermination and Application of Precision Data in Relation to Methods of Test ISO 8217 Fuels (Class F) Specification of Marine Fuels
Energy Institute StandardsIP 399 Test Method for Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fuel Oils IP 570 Test Method for Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fuel OilsRapid Liquid Phase Extraction Method
U.S. Department of Defense SpecificationsMIL-DTL-16884 Fuel, Naval Distillate
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 15101700(Fuel Oils)
ASTM D7621-16, Standard Test Method for Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fuel Oils by Rapid Liquid Phase Extraction, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.orgBack to Top