Significance and Use
5.1 This test method is intended for use in the laboratory or in the field for evaluating the cleanliness of distillate fuels, and liquid bio fuels. It is not applicable to on or in-line applications.
5.2 This test method offers advantage over traditional filtration methods in that it is a precise rapid test, and advantage over visual methods as it is not subjective.
5.3 An increase in particle counts can indicate a change in the fuel condition caused by storage or transfer for example.
5.4 High levels of particles can cause filter blockages and have a serious impact on the life of pumps, injectors, pistons and other moving parts. Knowledge of particle size in relation to the metallurgy can provide vital information especially if the hardness of particles is also known from other sources.
5.5 This test method specifies a minimum requirement for reporting measurements in particle size bands (see A1.1.2). Some specific applications may require measurements in other particle size bands.
5.6 Obtaining a representative sample and following the recommended sample and test specimen preparation procedures and timescales is particularly important with particle counting methods. (See Sections 8, 10, 14.1.4 and Note 8.)
1.1 This test method uses a specific automatic particle counter (APC) to count and measure the size of dispersed dirt particles, water droplets and other particles, in light and middle distillate fuel, and bio fuels such as biodiesel and biodiesel blends, in the overall range from 4 µm(c) to 100 µm(c) and in the size bands ≥4 µm(c), ≥6 µm(c), and ≥14 µm(c).
—ASTM and military specification fuels falling within the scope of this test method include Specifications: D975 grades 1D and 2D, D1655, D3699, D4814 (see 126.96.36.199), D6751, D7467, distillate grades of D396 and D2880, MIL-DTL-83133, and MIL-DTL-16884.
—For the purposes of this test method, water droplets are counted as particles, and agglomerated particles are detected and counted as a single larger particle. Dirt includes biological particles. Although the projected area of a particle is measured, this is expressed as the diameter of a sphere for the purposes of this test method.
—The notation (c), used with particle sizes, is used to denote that the apparatus has been calibrated in accordance with ISO 11171. Strictly this only applies to particles up to 50 µm.
—This test method may be used for particle sizes bands up to 100 µm(c), however the precision has only been determined for the size bands ≥4 µm(c), ≥6 µm(c), and ≥14 µm(c). All measurements are per mL.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D396 Specification for Fuel Oils
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
D3699 Specification for Kerosine
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4814 Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D6300 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias Data for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D6751 Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels
D7467 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oil, Biodiesel Blend (B6 to B20)
ISO 11171 Hydraulic Fluid Power--Calibration of Automatic Particle Counters for Liquids
ISO 12103-A1 Specification for Ultra Fine Test Dust (UFTD)
ISO 12103-A3 Specification for Medium Test Dust (MTD)
ISO 4406 Hydraulic Fluid Power--Fluids--Method for Coding Level of Contamination by Solid Particles
U.S. Dept. of Defense Specifications
MIL-DTL-16884 Fuel, Naval Distillate
MIL-DTL-83133 Turbine Fuel, Aviation, Kerosene Type, JP-8 (NATO F-34), NATO F-35, and JP-8+100 (NATO F-37)
automatic particle counting; automotive diesel; biodiesel; fuel cleanliness; gas oil; gasoline; kerosine; marine diesel;
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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