ASTM D7544 - 12

    Standard Specification for Pyrolysis Liquid Biofuel

    Active Standard ASTM D7544 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.E0

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.04


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    1. Scope

    1.1 This specification covers grades of pyrolysis liquid biofuel produced from biomass intended for use in various types of fuel-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades are described as follows:

    1.1.1 Grade G is intended for use in industrial burners equipped to handle the pyrolysis liquid biofuels meeting the requirements listed for Grade G in Table 1. The pyrolysis liquid biofuel listed under Grade G in Table 1 is not intended for use in residential heaters, small commercial boilers, engines, or marine applications.

    1.1.2 Grade D is intended for use in commercial/industrial burners requiring lower solids and ash content and which are equipped to handle the pyrolysis liquid biofuels meeting the requirements listed for Grade D in Table 1. The pyrolysis liquid biofuel listed under Grade D in Table 1 is not intended for use in residential heaters, engines, or marine applications not modified to handle these types of fuels.

    Note 1—For information on the significance of the physical, chemical, and performance properties identified in this specification, see Appendix X1.

    1.2 This specification is for use in contracts for the purchase of pyrolysis liquid biofuel and for guidance of consumers of this type of fuel.

    1.3 Nothing in this specification should preclude observance of national or local regulations, which may be more restrictive.

    Note 2—The generation and dissipation of static electricity may create problems in the handling of pyrolysis liquid biofuel. For more information on the subject, see Guide D4865.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.4.1 ExceptionBTU units are included for information only in 3.1.5.1.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    TABLE 1 Detailed Requirements for Pyrolysis Liquid Biofuels

    PropertyTest MethodGrade GGrade D
    Gross Heat of Combustion, MJ/kg, minD2401515
    Water Content, % mass, maxE2033030
    Pyrolysis Solids Content, % mass, maxD75792.50.25
    Kinematic Viscosity at 40°C, mm2/s, maxD445A125125
    Density at 20°C, kg/dm3D40521.11.31.11.3
    Sulfur Content, % mass, maxD42940.050.05
    Ash Content, % mass, maxD4820.250.15
    pH.E70ReportReport
    Flash Point,°C, minD93, Procedure B4545
    Pour Point,°C, maxD9799

    A Without filtering.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

    D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products

    D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter

    D396 Specification for Fuel Oils

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products

    D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

    D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D4865 Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems

    D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D6469 Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems

    D7579 Test Method for Pyrolysis Solids Content in Pyrolysis Liquids by Filtration of Solids in Methanol

    E70 Test Method for pH of Aqueous Solutions With the Glass Electrode

    E203 Test Method for Water Using Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15101800(Plant based liquid fuels or biofuels)


    DOI: 10.1520/D7544-12

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