Significance and Use
This test method provides a means of deriving the apparent bending modulus of a material by measuring force and angle of bend of a cantilever beam. The mathematical derivation assumes small deflections and purely elastic behavior. Under actual test conditions, the deformation has both elastic and plastic components. This test method does not distinguish or separate these, and hence a true elastic modulus is not calculable. Instead, an apparent value is obtained and is defined as the apparent bending modulus of the material. The tangent modulus obtained by Test Methods D790 is preferred, when the material can be tested by the Test Methods D790 test procedure.
Because of deviations from purely elastic behavior, changes in span length, width, and depth of the specimen will affect the value of the apparent bending modulus obtained; therefore, values obtained from specimens of different dimensions are not necessarily comparable.
Rate of loading is controlled only to the extent that the rate of angular change of the rotating jaw is fixed at 58 to 66°/min. Actual rate of stressing will be affected by span length, width, depth of the specimen, and weight of the pendulum.
For many materials, there are specifications that require the use of this test method, but with some procedural modifications that take precedence when adhering to the specification. Therefore, it is advisable to refer to that material specification before using this test method. Table 1 of Classification System D4000 lists the ASTM materials standards that currently exist.
Note 2—A discussion of the theory of obtaining a purely elastic bending modulus, using a cantilever beam testing apparatus, can be found in Appendix X1. The results obtained under actual test conditions will be the apparent bending modulus.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the apparent bending modulus of plastics by means of a cantilever beam. It is well suited for determining relative flexibility of materials over a wide range. It is particularly useful for materials too flexible to be tested by Test Methods D790.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Note 1—There is no known ISO equivalent to this standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing
D790 Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials
D4000 Classification System for Specifying Plastic Materials
D5947 Test Methods for Physical Dimensions of Solid Plastics Specimens
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
apparent bending modulus; bending movement; cantilever beam; stiffness; Apparent bending modulus; Cantilever testing; Deformation--plastics; Bending moment; Flexibility--plastics; Stiffness--plastics;
ICS Number Code 83.080.01 (Plastics in general)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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