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Significance and Use
5.1 Representative samples of fuel products and associated substances are required for the determination of microbial contamination in fuels and fuel systems in order to accurately assess the biodeterioration risk posed to the fuel, fuel-system components or both. Uncontrolled microbial contamination can affect fuel specification properties adversely.6 As discussed in Guide D6469, microbes can cause a variety of operational problems, including filter plugging and microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), the latter of which causes valve failure, tank and pipeline failure.
5.2 These practices for microbiological sampling decrease the risk of contaminating samples with extraneous microbes, thereby increasing the probability that the original microbial population in the sample does not change significantly between the time of sampling and the time of testing.
5.3 The objective of sampling for microbiological testing is to obtain a representative sample that is likely to reflect the degree and nature of microbial contamination in the system from which the sample is collected. Manual 477 addresses the rational for and design of microbial contamination programs.
5.4 The physical, chemical and microbiological property tests to be performed on a sample will dictate the sampling procedures, the sample quantity required, and many of the sample handling requirements.
5.5 Fuel systems are not normally designed to facilitate optimal microbiological sampling. Consequently, the selection of sampling device and sample source reflect compromises between accessibility and suitability for meeting the sample collection objective.
5.6 The guidance provided in Practice D4057 generally applies to this practice as well. Consequently, this practice will address only those procedures that apply uniquely to microbiological sampling.
1.3 This practice supplements Practice D4057 by providing guidance specific to the manual sampling of fuels when samples are to be tested for microbial contamination.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D396 Specification for Fuel Oils
D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
D2069 Specification for Marine Fuels
D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
D3508 Method for Evaluating Water Testing Membrane Filters for Fecal Coliform Recovery
D3699 Specification for Kerosine
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4814 Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D5245 Practice for Cleaning Laboratory Glassware, Plasticware, and Equipment Used in Microbiological Analyses
D6227 Specification for Unleaded Aviation Gasoline Containing a Non-hydrocarbon Component
D6469 Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems
D6751 Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels
D6974 Practice for Enumeration of Viable Bacteria and Fungi in Liquid Fuels--Filtration and Culture Procedures
American Petroleum Institute (API) StandardManualofPetroleumMea Chapter 3--Tank Gauging, section 1A--Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
Petroleum Equipment Institute (PEI) Standard900-08 Recommended Practices for the Inspection and Maintenance of UST Systems
ICS Number Code 07.100.99 (Other standards related to microbiology); 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 81102600(Sampling services)