Significance and Use
A large number of compounds, such as aldehydes, ketones, esters, and carboxylic acids, are produced when oils react with atmospheric oxygen. Oxidation is measured using a common FT-IR spectral feature between 1800 and 1670 cm-1 caused by the absorption of the carbonyl group present in most oxidation compounds. These oxidation products may lead to increased viscosity (causing oil thickening problems), acidity (causing acidic corrosion), and formation of sludge and varnish (leading to filter plugging, fouling of critical oil clearances and valve friction). Monitoring of oxidation products is therefore an important parameter in determining overall machinery health and should be considered in conjunction with data from other tests such as atomic emission (AE) and atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy for wear metal analysis (Test Method D 5185), physical property tests (Test Methods D 445 and D 6304), base reserve (Test Method D 2896 and D 4739), acid number tests (Test Methods D 664 and D 974) and other FT-IR oil analysis methods for nitration (Practice E 2412), sulfate by-products (Test Method D 7415), additive depletion (Test Method D 7412), breakdown products and external contaminants (Practice E 2412), which also assess elements of the oil’s condition, see Refs (1-6).
1.1 This test method covers monitoring oxidation in in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants such as in diesel crankcase, motor, hydraulic, gear and compressor oils, as well as other types of lubricants that are prone to oxidation.
1.2 This test method uses Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry for monitoring build-up of oxidation products in in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants as a result of normal machinery operation. Petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants react with oxygen in the air to form a number of different chemical species, including aldehydes, ketones, esters, and carboxylic acids. This test method is designed as a fast, simple spectroscopic check for monitoring of oxidation in in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants with the objective of helping diagnose the operational condition of the machine based on measuring the level of oxidation in the oil.
1.3 Acquisition of FT-IR spectral data for measuring oxidation in in-service oil and lubricant samples is described in Practice D 7418. In this test method, measurement and data interpretation parameters for oxidation using both direct trend analysis and differential (spectral subtraction) trend analysis are presented.
1.4 This test method is based on trending of spectral changes associated with oxidation of in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants. Warnings or alarm limits can be set on the basis of a fixed minimum value for a single measurement or, alternatively, can be based on a rate of change of the response measured, see Ref (1).
1.4.1 For direct trend analysis, values are recorded directly from absorption spectra and reported in units of absorbance per 0.1 mm pathlength.
1.4.2 For differential trend analysis, values are recorded from the differential spectra (spectrum obtained by subtraction of the absorption spectrum of the reference oil from that of the in-service oil) and reported in units of 100*absorbance per 0.1 mm pathlength (or equivalently absorbance units per centimetre).
1.4.3 In either case, maintenance action limits should be determined through statistical analysis, history of the same or similar equipment, round robin tests or other methods in conjunction with the correlation of oxidation changes to equipment performance.
Note 1—It is not the intent of this test method to establish or recommend normal, cautionary, warning or alert limits for any machinery. Such limits should be established in conjunction with advice and guidance from the machinery manufacturer and maintenance group.
1.5 This test method is for petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants and is not applicable for ester based oils, including polyol esters or phosphate esters.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6.1 Exception—The unit for wave numbers is cm-1.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D974 Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration
D2896 Test Method for Base Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Perchloric Acid Titration
D4739 Test Method for Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Hydrochloric Acid Titration
D5185 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D6304 Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration
D7412 Test Method for Condition Monitoring of Phosphate Antiwear Additives in In-Service Petroleum and Hydrocarbon Based Lubricants by Trend Analysis Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometry
D7415 Test Method for Condition Monitoring of Sulfate By-Products in In-Service Petroleum and Hydrocarbon Based Lubricants by Trend Analysis Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometry
D7418 Practice for Set-Up and Operation of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometers for In-Service Oil Condition Monitoring
E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy
E2412 Practice for Condition Monitoring of In-Service Lubricants by Trend Analysis Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometry
condition monitoring; differential trend analysis; direct trend analysis; Fourier transform infrared; FT-IR; hydrocarbon based lubricants; in-service petroleum lubricants; infrared; IR; lubricants; oils; oxidation;
ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
[Back to Top]