ASTM D7394 - 13

    Standard Practice for Rheological Characterization of Architectural Coatings using Three Rotational Bench Viscometers

    Active Standard ASTM D7394 | Developed by Subcommittee: D01.24

    Book of Standards Volume: 06.01


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 A significant feature of this practice is the ability to survey coating rheology over a broad range of shear rates with the same bench viscometers and test protocol that paint formulators and paint QC analysts routinely use. By using this procedure, measurement of the shear rheology of a coating is possible without using an expensive laboratory rheometer, and performance predictions can be made based on those measurements.

    5.2 Low-Shear Viscosity (LSV)—The determination of low-shear viscosity in this practice can be used to predict the relative “in-can” performance of coatings for their ability to suspend pigment or prevent syneresis, or both. The LSV can also predict relative performance for leveling and sag resistance after application by roll, brush or spray. Fig. 1 shows the predictive low-shear viscosity relationships for several coatings properties.

    5.3 Mid-Shear Viscosity (MSV)—The determination of MSV (coating consistency) in this practice is often the first viscosity obtained. This viscosity reflects the coatings resistance to flow on mixing, pouring, pumping, or hand stirring. Architectural coatings nearly always have a target specification for mid-shear viscosity, which is usually obtained by adjusting the level of thickener in the coating. Consequently, mid-shear viscosity is ideally a constant for a given series of coatings being tested to provide meaningful comparisons of low-shear and high-shear viscosity. With viscosities at the same KU value, MSV can also be used to obtain the relative Mid-Shear Thickener Efficiency (MSTE) of different thickeners in the same coating expressed as lb thickener/100 gal wet coating or g thickener/L wet coating.

    5.4 High-Shear Viscosity (HSV)—High-shear viscosity in this practice is a measure of the coatings resistance to flow on application by brush or roller, which is often referred to as brush-drag or rolling resistance respectively. This viscosity relates to the coatings ability to provide one-coat hiding, its ease of application (brushing or rolling resistance), and its spread rate. Fig. 2 shows high-shear viscosity relationship predictions for relative coating performance.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers a popular industry protocol for the rheological characterization of waterborne architectural coatings using three commonly used rotational bench viscometers. Each viscometer operates in a different shear rate regime for determination of coating viscosity at low shear rate, mid shear rate, and at high shear rate respectively as defined herein. General guidelines are provided for predicting some coating performance properties from the viscosity measurements made. With appropriate correlations and subsequent modification of the performance guidelines, this practice has potential for characterization of other types of aqueous and non-aqueous coatings.

    1.2 The values in common viscosity units (Krebs Units, KU and Poise, P) are to be regarded as standard.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D562 Test Method for Consistency of Paints Measuring Krebs Unit (KU) Viscosity Using a Stormer-Type Viscometer

    D869 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Settling of Paint

    D1005 Test Method for Measurement of Dry-Film Thickness of Organic Coatings Using Micrometers

    D1200 Test Method for Viscosity by Ford Viscosity Cup

    D2196 Test Methods for Rheological Properties of Non-Newtonian Materials by Rotational (Brookfield type) Viscometer

    D2805 Test Method for Hiding Power of Paints by Reflectometry

    D4040 Test Method for Rheological Properties of Paste Printing and Vehicles by the Falling-Rod Viscometer

    D4062 Test Method for Leveling of Paints by Draw-Down Method

    D4287 Test Method for High-Shear Viscosity Using a Cone/Plate Viscometer

    D4400 Test Method for Sag Resistance of Paints Using a Multinotch Applicator

    D4414 Practice for Measurement of Wet Film Thickness by Notch Gages

    D4958 Test Method for Comparison of the Brush Drag of Latex Paints


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 17.060 (Measurement of volume, mass, density, viscosity)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 31211502(Water based paints)


    DOI: 10.1520/D7394

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