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    ASTM D7370 / D7370M - 14

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Relative Density and Absorption of Fine, Coarse and Blended Aggregate Using Combined Vacuum Saturation and Rapid Submersion

    Active Standard ASTM D7370 / D7370M | Developed by Subcommittee: D04.51

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.03


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Relative density (specific gravity) is the characteristic generally used for calculation of the volume occupied by the aggregate in various mixtures containing aggregate, including Portland cement concrete, bituminous concrete, and other mixtures that are proportioned or analyzed on an absolute volume basis. Relative density (specific gravity) is also used in the computation of voids in aggregate in Test Method C29/C29M. Relative density (specific gravity) saturated surface dry (SSD) is used if the aggregate is at SSD, that is, if its absorption has been satisfied. Conversely, the relative density (specific gravity) oven-dry (OD) is used for computations when the aggregate is dry or assumed to be dry.

    4.2 Apparent density and apparent relative density (apparent specific gravity) pertain to the solid material making up the constituent particles not including the pore space within the particles which is accessible to water.

    4.3 Absorption values are used to calculate the change in the mass of an aggregate due to water absorbed in the pore spaces within the constituent particles, when it is deemed that the aggregate has been in contact with water long enough to satisfy the absorption potential. The laboratory standard for absorption is that obtained after submerging dry aggregate for a prescribed period of time.

    Note 1: There are other test methods that have been used and continue to be used to determine these aggregate properties: C127 and C128. This test method may result in values for these properties that are close to or divergent from values from other test methods.

    Note 2: The quality of the results produced by this standard are dependent upon the competence of the personnel performing the procedure and the capability, calibration, and the maintenance of the equipment used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3666 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3666 alone does not completely assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors: following the suggestions of Practice D3666 or similar acceptable guideline provides a means of evaluating and controlling some of those factors.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of relative density and absorption of fine aggregates by Method A and coarse and blended aggregates by Method B.

    1.2 A multi-laboratory precision and bias statement for coarse and combined aggregate tests in this standard has not been developed at this time. Therefore, this standard should not be used for acceptance or rejection of coarse and combined aggregate materials for purchasing purposes.

    1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Some values have only SI units because inch-pound equivalents are not used in practice.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C29/C29M Test Method for Bulk Density (Unit Weight) and Voids in Aggregate

    C127 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate

    C128 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate

    C136 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates

    C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials

    C702 Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size

    D75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates

    D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 91.100.15 (Mineral materials and products)

    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D7370_D7370M-14

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D7370 / D7370M-14, Standard Test Method for Determination of Relative Density and Absorption of Fine, Coarse and Blended Aggregate Using Combined Vacuum Saturation and Rapid Submersion, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.org

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