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Significance and Use
The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives information on the composition, the properties, and the behavior of the fuel during storage and use. Volatility is the major determinant of the tendency of a hydrocarbon mixture to produce potentially explosive vapors.
The distillation characteristics are equally important for both automotive and aviation gasolines, affecting starting, warm-up, and tendency to vapor lock at high operating temperatures or high altitude, or both. The presence of high boiling point components in these and other fuels can significantly affect the degree of formation of solid combustion deposits.
Volatility, as it affects the rate of evaporation, is an important factor in the application of many solvents, particularly those used in paints.
Distillation limits are often included in petroleum product specifications, in commercial contract agreements, process refinery/control applications, and for compliance to regulatory rules.
1.1 This test method covers the procedure for the determination of the distillation characteristics of petroleum products in the range of 20 to 400°C (68 to 752°F) using miniaturized automatic distillation apparatus.
1.2 This test method is applicable to such products as: light and middle distillates, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels containing up to 10 % ethanol, aviation gasolines, aviation turbine fuels, regular and low sulfur diesel fuels, biodiesel blends up to 20 % biodiesel, special petroleum spirits, naphthas, white spirits, kerosines, burner fuels, and marine fuels.
1.3 This test method is designed for the analysis of distillate products; it is not applicable to products containing appreciable quantities of residual material.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure
D323 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4953 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Gasoline and Gasoline-Oxygenate Blends (Dry Method)
D5190 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Automatic Method)
D5191 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method)
D5482 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method--Atmospheric)
D6300 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias Data for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material
Energy Institute StandardsIP394 Determination of Air Saturated Vapour Pressure
ICS Number Code 75.180.20 (Processing equipment)