Significance and Use
Flexure tests on flat sandwich constructions may be conducted to determine the sandwich flexural stiffness, the core shear strength and shear modulus, or the facings compressive and tensile strengths. Tests to evaluate core shear strength may also be used to evaluate core-to-facing bonds.
This practice provides a standard method of determining sandwich flexural and shear stiffness and core shear modulus using calculations involving measured deflections of sandwich flexure specimens. Tests can be conducted on short specimens and on long specimens (or on one specimen loaded in two ways), and the flexural stiffness, shear rigidity and core shear modulus can be determined by simultaneous solution of the complete deflection equations for each span or each loading. If the facing modulus values are known, a short span beam can be tested and the calculated bending deflection subtracted from the beam's total deflection. This gives the shear deflection from which the transverse shear modulus can be determined.
Note 1—Core shear strength and shear modulus are best determined in accordance with Test Method C273 provided bare core material is available.
Note 2—For cores with high shear modulus, the shear deflection will be quite small and ordinary errors in deflection measurements will cause considerable variations in the calculated shear modulus.
Note 3—To insure that simple sandwich beam theory is valid, a good rule of thumb for a four-point bending test is the span length divided by the sandwich thickness should be greater than 20 (L1/d > 20) with the ratio of facing thickness to core thickness less than 0.1 (t/c < 0.1).
1.1 This practice covers determination of the flexural and transverse shear stiffness properties of flat sandwich constructions subjected to flexure in such a manner that the applied moments produce curvature of the sandwich facing planes. Permissible core material forms include those with continuous bonding surfaces (such as balsa wood and foams) as well as those with discontinuous bonding surfaces (such as honeycomb). The calculation methods in this practice are limited to sandwich beams exhibiting linear force-deflection response. This practice uses test results obtained from Test Methods C393/C393M and/or D7249/D7249M.
1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.2.1 Within the text the inch-pound units are shown in brackets.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C273 Test Method for Shear Properties of Sandwich Core Materials
C274 Terminology of Structural Sandwich Constructions
C393/C393M Test Method for Core Shear Properties of Sandwich Constructions by Beam Flexure
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials
D7249/D7249M Test Method for Facing Properties of Sandwich Constructions by Long Beam Flexure
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E1309 Guide for Identification of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials in Databases
E1434 Guide for Recording Mechanical Test Data of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials in Databases
core shear modulus; flexural stiffness; sandwich construction; sandwich deflection; shear rigidity; shear stiffness; Flexural stiffness; Sandwich beam test
ICS Number Code 79.060.01 (Wood-based panels in general)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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