Active Standard ASTM D7248 / D7248M | Developed by Subcommittee: D30.05
Book of Standards Volume: 15.03
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
This test method is designed to produce bearing/bypass interaction response data for research and development, and for structural design and analysis. The standard configuration for each procedure is very specific and is intended as a baseline configuration for developing structural design data.
Procedure A, the bypass/high bearing double-shear configuration is recommended for developing data for specific applications which involve double shear joints.
Procedure B, the bypass/high bearing single-shear configuration is more useful in the evaluation of typical joint configurations. The specimen may be tested in either an unstabilized (no support fixture) or stabilized configuration. The unstabilized configuration is intended for tensile loading and the stabilized configuration is intended for compressive loading. These configurations, particularly the stabilized configuration, have been extensively used in the development of design allowables data. The variants of either procedure provide flexibility in the conduct of the test, allowing adaptation of the test setup to a specific application. However, the flexibility of test parameters allowed by the variants makes meaningful comparison between datasets difficult if the datasets were not tested using identical test parameters.
Procedure C, the bypass/low bearing double-shear hardpoint configuration is recommended for determining the effect of low bearing stress levels on bypass strength. While a similar single-shear configuration could be tested, there is insufficient experience with a single-shear configuration to recommend its use at this time.
General factors that influence the mechanical response of composite laminates and should therefore be reported include the following: material, methods of material preparation and lay-up, specimen stacking sequence, specimen preparation, specimen conditioning, environment of testing, specimen alignment and gripping, speed of testing, time held at test temperature, void content, and volume percent reinforcement.
Specific factors that influence the bearing/bypass interaction response of composite laminates and should therefore be reported include not only the loading method (either Procedure A or B) and loading type (tension or compression) but the following (for both procedures): edge distance ratio, width to diameter ratio, diameter to thickness ratio, fastener torque, fastener or pin material, fastener or pin clearance; and (for Procedure B only) countersink angle and depth of countersink, type of grommet (if used), type of mating material, and type of support fixture (if used). Properties, in the test direction, which may be obtained from this test method include the following:
Filled hole tensile bearing/bypass strength.
Filled hole compressive bearing/bypass strength.
Bearing stress/bypass strain curve.
1.1 This test method determines the uniaxial bearing/bypass interaction response of multi-directional polymer matrix composite laminates reinforced by high-modulus fibers by either double-shear tensile loading (Procedures A and C) or single-shear tensile or compressive loading (Procedure B) of a two-fastener specimen. The scope of this test method is limited to net section (bypass) failure modes. Standard specimen configurations using fixed values of test parameters are described for each procedure. A number of test parameters may be varied within the scope of the standard, provided that the parameters are fully documented in the test report. The composite material forms are limited to continuous-fiber or discontinuous-fiber (tape or fabric, or both) reinforced composites for which the laminate is balanced and symmetric with respect to the test direction. The range of acceptable test laminates and thicknesses are described in 8.2.1.
1.2 This test method is consistent with the recommendations of MIL-HDBK-17, which describes the desirable attributes of a bearing/bypass interaction response test method.
1.3 The two-fastener test configurations described in this test method are similar to those in Test Method D5961/D5961M as well as those used by industry to investigate the bearing portion of the bearing/bypass interaction response for bolted joints, where the specimen may produce either a bearing failure mode or a bypass failure mode. Should the test specimen fail in a bearing failure mode rather than the desired bypass mode, then the test should be considered to be a bearing dominated bearing/bypass test, and the data reduction and reporting procedures of Test Method D5961/D5961M should be used instead of those given in this standard.
1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.4.1 Within the text the inch-pound units are shown in brackets.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
Other DocumentMIL-HDBK-17 Polymer Matrix Composites, Vol 1, Section 7 Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4, Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098, http://dodssp.daps.dla.mil.
D792 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
D2584 Test Method for Ignition Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins
D2734 Test Methods for Void Content of Reinforced Plastics
D3171 Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials
D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials
D5229/D5229M Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
D5687/D5687M Guide for Preparation of Flat Composite Panels with Processing Guidelines for Specimen Preparation
D5766/D5766M Test Method for Open-Hole Tensile Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
D5961/D5961M Test Method for Bearing Response of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
D6484/D6484M Test Method for Open-Hole Compressive Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
D6742/D6742M Practice for Filled-Hole Tension and Compression Testing of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E251 Test Methods for Performance Characteristics of Metallic Bonded Resistance Strain Gauges
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E1237 Guide for Installing Bonded Resistance Strain Gages
E1309 Guide for Identification of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials in Databases
E1434 Guide for Recording Mechanical Test Data of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials in Databases
ICS Number Code 59.100.01 (Materials for the reinforcement of composites in general)