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Significance and Use
5.1 Safety-related service water system (SWS) components are designed to provide adequate cooling to equipment essential to the safe operation and shutdown of the plant. Linings in these systems are installed to maintain the integrity of the system components by preventing corrosion and erosion of the metal materials of construction. Linings on SWS surfaces upstream of components, including heat exchangers, orifice plates, strainers, and valves, the detachment of which may affect safe-plant operation or shutdown, may be considered safety-related, depending on plant-specific licensing commitments and design bases.
5.2 The testing presented in this guide is used to provide reasonable assurance that the linings, when properly applied, will be suitable for the intended service by preventing corrosion and erosion for some extended period of time. Additionally, the test data derived allows development of schedules, methods, and techniques for assessing the condition of the lining materials (see Guide D7167). The ultimate objective of the testing is to avoid lining failures that could result in blockage of equipment, such as piping or heat transfer components, preventing the system or component from performing its intended safety function.
5.4 In the event of conflict, users of this guide must recognize that the licensee's plant-specific quality assurance program and licensing commitments shall prevail with respect to the selection process for and qualification of CSL III lining materials.
5.5 Operating experience has shown that the most severe operating conditions with respect to heat exchanger linings occur on pass partitions. A phenomenon known as the “cold wall effect” accelerates moisture permeation through a coating applied to the warmer side of a partition that separates fluids at two different temperatures. The thickness and permeability of the lining are key variables affecting the ability of a lining to withstand cold wall blistering.
5.5.1 This effect is particularly pronounced when the separated fluids are water, though the effect will occur when only air is on the other side, for example, an outdoor tank filled with warm liquid. A heat exchanger pass partition represents geometry uniquely vulnerable to the water-to-water maximized temperature differentials (ΔTs) that drive the cold wall effect.
5.5.2 Pass partitions separate relatively cold incoming cooling water from the discharge water warmed by the heat exchanger's thermal duty. Improperly designed coatings will exhibit moisture permeation to the substrate accelerated by the cold-wall effect. Many instances of premature pass partition warm-side blistering have been noted in the nuclear industry. Such degradation has also been seen on lined cover plate and channel barrel segments that reflect water-to-air configurations.
5.6 Large water-to-water ΔTs are known to be the most severe design condition. The test device used to replicate ΔT configurations is known as an “Atlas cell.” Atlas cell testing is governed by industry standard test methodologies (Test Method C868 and NACE TM0174). A lining proven suitable for the most severe hypothesized ΔT would also be suitable for service on other waterside surfaces.
5.7 Plant cooling water varies in composition and temperature seasonally. For purposes of standardization, demineralized water is used in Atlas cell exposures rather than raw plant water. It is generally accepted in polymeric coatings technology that low-conductivity water (deionized or demineralized) is more aggressive with respect to its ability to permeate linings than raw water. Thus, stipulating use of low-conductivity water as the test medium is considered conservative.
1.3 The lining systems evaluated in accordance with this guide are expected to be applied to metal substrates comprising water-wetted (that is, continuous or intermittent immersion) surfaces in systems that may include:
1.4 This guide anticipates that the lining systems to be tested include liquid-grade and paste-grade polymeric materials. Sheet type lining materials, such as rubber, are excluded from the scope of this guide.
1.5 Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the creation of a standard practice is not practical. This standard gives guidance in setting up tests and specifies test procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with differing materials, specimen preparation methods, and test facilities.
1.6 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A36/A36M Specification for Carbon Structural Steel
C868 Test Method for Chemical Resistance of Protective Linings
D115 Test Methods for Testing Solvent Containing Varnishes Used for Electrical Insulation
D714 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Blistering of Paints
D2240 Test Method for Rubber Property--Durometer Hardness
D2583 Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Rigid Plastics by Means of a Barcol Impressor
D2794 Test Method for Resistance of Organic Coatings to the Effects of Rapid Deformation (Impact)
D4060 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Taber Abraser
D4082 Test Method for Effects of Gamma Radiation on Coatings for Use in Nuclear Power Plants
D4538 Terminology Relating to Protective Coating and Lining Work for Power Generation Facilities
D4541 Test Method for Pull-Off Strength of Coatings Using Portable Adhesion Testers
D5139 Specification for Sample Preparation for Qualification Testing of Coatings to be Used in Nuclear Power Plants
D5144 Guide for Use of Protective Coating Standards in Nuclear Power Plants
D6677 Test Method for Evaluating Adhesion by Knife
D7167 Guide for Establishing Procedures to Monitor the Performance of Safety-Related Coating Service Level III Lining Systems in an Operating Nuclear Power Plant
E96/E96M Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials
G14 Test Method for Impact Resistance of Pipeline Coatings (Falling Weight Test)
G42 Test Method for Cathodic Disbonding of Pipeline Coatings Subjected to Elevated Temperatures
Federal StandardsEPAMethod415.1 Total Organic Carbon in Water
NACE InternationalRP0394 Application, Performance and Quality Control of Plant-Applied, Fusion Bonded External Pipe Coating TM0174 Laboratory Methods for the Evaluation of Coating Materials and Lining Material on Metallic Substrates in Immersion Service TM0404 Offshore Platform Atmospheric and Splash Zone New Construction Coating System Evaluation
ICS Number Code 23.040.01 (Pipeline components in general. Pipelines)
UNSPSC Code 73181100(Coating services)