Active Standard ASTM D7216 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.B0.07
Book of Standards Volume: 05.04
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
5.1 Some engine oil formulations have been shown to lack compatibility with certain elastomers used for seals in automotive engines. These deleterious effects on the elastomer are greatest with new engine oils (that is, oils that have not been exposed to an engine’s operating environment) and when the exposure is at elevated temperatures.
5.2 This test method requires that non-reference oil(s) be tested in parallel with a reference oil, TMC 1006-1, known to be aggressive for some parameters under service conditions. This relative compatibility permits decisions on the anticipated or predicted performance of the non-reference oil in service.
5.3 Elastomer materials can show significant variation in physical properties, not only from batch-to-batch but also within a sheet and from sheet-to-sheet. Results obtained with the reference oil are submitted by the test laboratories to the TMC to allow it to update continually the total and within-laboratory standard deviation estimates. These estimates, therefore, incorporate effects of variations in the properties of the reference elastomers on the test variability.
5.5 The reference elastomers, reference oil and the physical properties involved in this test method address the specific requirements of engine oils. Although other tests exist for compatibility of elastomers with liquids, these are considered too generalized for engine oils.
1.1 This test method covers quantitative procedures for the evaluation of the compatibility of automotive engine oils with several reference elastomers typical of those used in the sealing materials in contact with these oils. Compatibility is evaluated by determining the changes in volume, Durometer A hardness and tensile properties when the elastomer specimens are immersed in the oil for a specified time and temperature.
1.2 Effective sealing action requires that the physical properties of elastomers used for any seal have a high level of resistance to the liquid or oil in which they are immersed. When such a high level of resistance exists, the elastomer is said to be compatible with the liquid or oil.
1.3 This test method provides a preliminary or first order evaluation of oil/elastomer compatibility only. Because seals might be subjected to static or dynamic loads, or both, and they can operate over a range of conditions, a complete evaluation of the potential sealing performance of any elastomer-oil combination in any service condition usually requires tests additional to those described in this test method.
1.4 The several reference elastomer formulations specified in this test method were chosen to be representative of those used in both heavy-duty diesel engines and passenger-car spark-ignition engines (the latter are covered in Annex A2). The procedures described in this test method can, however, also be used to evaluate the compatibility of automotive engine oils with different elastomer types/formulations or different test durations and temperatures to those employed in this test method.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Summary of Test Method
Significance and Use
TMC 1006-1 Reference Oil
Precision and Bias
Formulations and Physical Properties for Reference Elastomers Typically Used in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines
Test Procedure for Reference Elastomers Typically Used in Spark-Ignition Engines
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D297 Test Methods for Rubber Products--Chemical Analysis
D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers--Tension
D471 Test Method for Rubber Property--Effect of Liquids
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1566 Terminology Relating to Rubber
D2240 Test Method for Rubber Property--Durometer Hardness
D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants
D4485 Specification for Performance of Active API Service Category Engine Oils
D5662 Test Method for Determining Automotive Gear Oil Compatibility with Typical Oil Seal Elastomers
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
E178 Practice for Dealing With Outlying Observations
SAE StandardSAEJ2643 Standard Reference Elastomers (SRE) for Characterizing the Effect of Liquids on Vulcanized Rubbers
ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)