Significance and Use
The flash point temperature is one measure of the tendency of the test specimen to form a flammable mixture with air under controlled laboratory conditions. It is only one of a number of properties that must be considered in assessing the overall flammability hazard of a material.
Flash point is used in shipping and safety regulations to define flammable and combustible materials. Consult the particular regulation involved for precise definitions of these classifications.
Flash point can indicate the possible presence of highly volatile and flammable materials in a relatively non-volatile or non-flammable material.
In cases where Test Method D 2887 data are available, that is, for determination of boiling range distribution or calculation of other physical properties, this test method provides a calculation method for flash point without performing an additional analysis. Table 1 shows the ranges for the IBP, 5%, and 10% results for each equation.
In the case where the flash point of a fuel has been initially established, the calculated flash point is useful as a flash point check on subsequent samples of that fuel, provided its source and mode of manufacture remain unchanged.
1.1 This test method covers the calculated flash point formula, which represents a means for directly estimating the flash point temperature of distillate fuels from Test Method D 2887 data. The value computed from the equation is termed the “calculated flash point.” The calculated flash point formula is applicable to diesel fuel samples based on a correlation to Test Method D 93 over the range from 47 to 99°C, and to jet fuel samples based on a correlation to Test Method D 56 and Test Method D 3828 over the range from 35 to 67°C.
1.2 The calculated flash point formula is valid for diesel and jet fuels with an IBP between 90 and 162°C (194 and 324°F), Test Method D 2887 5% recovery temperature between 136 and 207°C (277 and 405°F), and Test Method D 2887 10% recovery temperature between 142 and 222°C (288 and 432°F). For each flash point test method (Test Method D 56, Test Method D 93, and Test Method D 3828) a separate equation has been established. See 4.4 for a detailed overview of the simulated distillation IBP, 5%, and 10% ranges per equation.
1.3 A calculated diagnostic parameter, not exceeding a given threshold value, is a prerequisite for acceptance of the calculated flash point.
1.4 The diagnostic parameter MSPEX (Mean Summed Prediction Error) checks the sample compliance, based on reconstruction of TIBP, T5%, and T10% of the sample, via a calculation procedure. A value for MSPEX not exceeding the threshold level of 1.9°C is a prerequisite for accepting the calculated flash point, CFP.
Note 1—It is important to note that calculated flash point results, at this time, are not recognized by regulatory organizations in verifying conformance to applicable regulations.
Note 2—The calculated flash point derived from simulated distillation data depends upon the accuracy of determination of the IBP temperature and the 5% and 10% recovery temperatures.
Note 3—If the user's specification requires a defined flash point test method other than this test method, neither this test method nor any other test method should be substituted for the prescribed test method without obtaining comparative data and an agreement from the specifier.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography
D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material
calculated flash point; diesel fuel; flash point; jet fuel; MSPEX; PLS; simulated distillation;
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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