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Significance and Use
4.1 Bulk relative density (specific gravity) is the characteristic generally used for calculation of the volume occupied by the aggregate in various mixtures containing aggregate including Portland cement concrete, bituminous concrete, and other mixtures that are proportioned or analyzed on an absolute volume basis. Bulk relative density (specific gravity) is used in the computation of voids in aggregate in and . Bulk relative density (specific gravity) determined on the saturated surface dry (SSD) basis is used if the aggregate is wet, that is, if its absorption has been satisfied. Conversely, the bulk relative density (specific gravity) determined on the oven-dry basis is used for computations when the aggregate is dry or assumed to be dry.
4.2 Apparent relative density (specific gravity) pertains to the relative density of the solid material making up the constituent particles not including the pore space within the particles that is accessible to water. This value is not widely used in construction aggregate technology.
4.3 Water absorption values are used to calculate the change in the mass of an aggregate due to water absorbed in the pore spaces within the constituent particles, compared to the dry condition, when it is deemed that the aggregate has been in contact with water long enough to satisfy most of the absorption potential. The laboratory standard for absorption is that obtained after submerging dry aggregate for approximately 24 hours in water. Aggregates mined from below the water table may have a higher absorption when used, if not allowed to dry. Conversely, some aggregates when used may contain an amount of absorbed moisture less than the 24 hours soaked condition: For an aggregate that has been in contact with water and that had free moisture on the particle surface, the percentage of free moisture can be determined by deducting the absorption from the total moisture content determined according to by drying.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative density (specific gravity) and absorption of fine aggregates.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C29/C29M Test Method for Bulk Density (Unit Weight) and Voids in Aggregate
C125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates
C128 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate
C566 Test Method for Total Evaporable Moisture Content of Aggregate by Drying
C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials
C702 Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
C1252 Test Methods for Uncompacted Void Content of Fine Aggregate (as Influenced by Particle Shape, Surface Texture, and Grading)
D8 Terminology Relating to Materials for Roads and Pavements
D75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates
D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
AASHTO StandardsT-84 Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate
Other DocumentsOperational Instructions
ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products)
UNSPSC Code 30111800(Aggregates)
ASTM D7172-14, Standard Test Method for Determining the Relative Density (Specific Gravity) and Absorption of Fine Aggregates Using Infrared, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.orgBack to Top