Active Standard ASTM D7137 / D7137M | Developed by Subcommittee: D30.05
Book of Standards Volume: 15.03
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
Susceptibility to damage from concentrated out-of-plane forces is one of the major design concerns of many structures made of advanced composite laminates. Knowledge of the damage resistance and damage tolerance properties of a laminated composite plate is useful for product development and material selection.
The residual strength data obtained using this test method is most commonly used in material specifications and research and development activities. The data are not intended for use in establishing design allowables, as the results are specific to the geometry and physical conditions tested and are generally not scalable to other configurations. Its usefulness in establishing quality assurance requirements is also limited, due to the inherent variability of induced damage, as well as the dependency of damage tolerance response upon the pre-existent damage state.
The properties obtained using this test method can provide guidance in regard to the anticipated damage tolerance capability of composite structures of similar material, thickness, stacking sequence, and so forth. However, it must be understood that the damage tolerance of a composite structure is highly dependent upon several factors including geometry, stiffness, support conditions, and so forth. Significant differences in the relationships between the existent damage state and the residual compressive strength can result due to differences in these parameters. For example, residual strength and stiffness properties obtained using this test method would more likely reflect the damage tolerance characteristics of an un-stiffened monolithic skin or web than that of a skin attached to substructure which resists out-of-plane deformation. Similarly, test specimen properties would be expected to be similar to those of a panel with equivalent length and width dimensions, in comparison to those of a panel significantly larger than the test specimen.
The reporting section requires items that tend to influence residual compressive strength to be reported; these include the following: material, methods of material fabrication, accuracy of lay-up orientation, laminate stacking sequence and overall thickness, specimen geometry, specimen preparation, specimen conditioning, environment of testing, void content, volume percent reinforcement, type, size and location of damage (including method of non-destructive inspection), specimen/fixture alignment and gripping, time at temperature, and speed of testing.
Properties that result from the residual strength assessment include the following: compressive residual strength FCAI, compressive force as a function of crosshead displacement, and surface strains as functions of crosshead displacement.
1.1 This test method covers compression residual strength properties of multidirectional polymer matrix composite laminated plates, which have been subjected to quasi-static indentation per Test Method D6264/D6264M or drop-weight impact per Test Method D7136/D7136M prior to application of compressive force. The composite material forms are limited to continuous-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites with multidirectional fiber orientations, and which are both symmetric and balanced with respect to the test direction. The range of acceptable test laminates and thicknesses is defined in 8.2.
Note 1—When used to determine the residual strength of drop-weight impacted plates, this test method is commonly referred to as the Compression After Impact, or CAI, method.
1.2 The method utilizes a flat, rectangular composite plate, previously subjected to a damaging event, which is tested under compressive loading using a stabilization fixture.
Note 2—The damage tolerance properties obtained are particular to the type, geometry and location of damage inflicted upon the plate.
1.3 The properties generated by this test method are highly dependent upon several factors, which include specimen geometry, layup, damage type, damage size, damage location, and boundary conditions. Thus, results are generally not scalable to other configurations, and are particular to the combination of geometric and physical conditions tested.
1.4 This test method can be used to test undamaged polymer matrix composite plates, but historically such tests have demonstrated a relatively high incidence of undesirable failure modes (such as end crushing). Test Method D6641/D6641M is recommended for obtaining compressive properties of undamaged polymer matrix composites.
1.5 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.5.1 Within the text the inch-pound units are shown in brackets.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D792 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
D3171 Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials
D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials
D5229/D5229M Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
D5687/D5687M Guide for Preparation of Flat Composite Panels with Processing Guidelines for Specimen Preparation
D6264/D6264M Test Method for Measuring the Damage Resistance of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite to a Concentrated Quasi-Static Indentation Force
D6641/D6641M Test Method for Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Using a Combined Loading Compression (CLC) Test Fixture
D7136/D7136M Test Method for Measuring the Damage Resistance of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite to a Drop-Weight Impact Event
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E1309 Guide for Identification of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials in Databases
E1434 Guide for Recording Mechanical Test Data of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials in Databases
Military StandardsNASAReferencePublica Standard Tests for Toughened Resin Composites, Revised Edition, July 1983 Available from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681-2199.
ICS Number Code 83.120 (Reinforced plastics)