Significance and Use
5.1 Nonylphenol, octylphenol, and bisphenol A have been shown to have toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The source of nonylphenol and octylphenol is prominently from the use of common commercial surfactants. The most widely used surfactant is NPEO which has an average ethoxylate chain of 9 mol of ethoxylate. The ethoxylate chain is readily biodegraded to form NP1EO and NP2EO, nonylphenol carboxylate (NPEC) and, under anaerobic conditions, nonylphenol. Nonylphenol will also biodegrade, but may be released into environmental waters directly at trace levels. This method has been investigated for use with surface water and waste treatment effluent samples and is applicable to these matrices. It has not been investigated for use with salt water or solid sample matrices.
5.2 The first reported synthesis of BPA was by the reaction of phenol with acetone by Zincke. BPA has become an important high volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastic and resins are used in numerous products including electrical and electronic equipment, automobiles, sports and safety equipment, reusable food and drink containers, electrical laminates for printed circuit boards, composites, paints, adhesives, dental sealants, protective coatings and many other products. The environmental source of BPA is predominantly from the decomposition of polycarbonate plastics and resins. BPA is not classified as bio-accumulative by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and will biodegrade. BPA may be released into the environment waters directly at trace levels through landfill leachate and sewage treatment plant effluents.
1.1 This test method covers determination of nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA) that are partitioned into organic solvent, separated using gas chromatography and detected with mass selective detection. These compounds or isomer mixtures are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by this method. This method adheres to selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry but full scan mass spectrometry has also been shown to work well under these conditions. Either analysis may be used.
1.2 The method detection limit (MDL) and reporting limit (RL) for NP, NP1EO, NP2EO, OP, and BPA are listed in Table 1.
TABLE 1 MDL and Reporting Limits
Reporting RangeB (μg/L)
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D3694 Practices for Preparation of Sample Containers and for Preservation of Organic Constituents
D3856 Guide for Management Systems in Laboratories Engaged in Analysis of Water
D5847 Practice for Writing Quality Control Specifications for Standard Test Methods for Water Analysis
D5905 Practice for the Preparation of Substitute Wastewater
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
bisphenol A; continuous liquid-liquid extraction; diethoxylate; ethoxylate; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; monoethoxylate; Nonylphenol; octylphenol; water;
ICS Number Code 71.080.15 (Aromatic hydrocarbons)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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