ASTM D7040 - 04(2010)

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Low Levels of Phosphorus in ILSAC GF 4 and Similar Grade Engine Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    Active Standard ASTM D7040 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.04


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    Significance and Use

    This test method usually requires several minutes per sample. Other test methods which can be used for the determination of phosphorus in lubricating oils include WDXRF Test Method D4927 and ICPAES Test Methods D4951 and D5185. However, this test method provides more precise results than Test Methods D4951 or D5185.

    Lubricating oils are typically blends of additive packages, and their specifications are also determined, in part, by elemental composition. This test method can be used to determine if unused lubricating oils meet specifications with respect to elemental composition.

    It is expected that GF 4 grade engine oils marketed in the years 2004-2005 will have a maximum phosphorus concentration level of 500 to 800 mg/kg. These limits are required to minimize poisoning of automotive emission control catalysts by volatile phosphorus species. It is anticipated that the later grades of oils may have even lower phosphorus levels.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of phosphorus in unused lubricating oils, such as International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) GF 4 and similar grade engine oils, by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

    1.2 The precision statements are valid for dilutions in which the mass % sample in solvent is held constant in the range of 1 to 5 mass % oil.

    1.3 The precision tables define the concentration ranges covered in the interlaboratory study (500 to 800 mg/kg). However, both lower and higher concentrations can be determined by this test method. The low concentration limits are dependent on the sensitivity of the ICP instrument and the dilution factor. The high concentration limits are determined by the product of the maximum concentration defined by the linear calibration curve and the sample dilution factor.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4307 Practice for Preparation of Liquid Blends for Use as Analytical Standards

    D4927 Test Methods for Elemental Analysis of Lubricant and Additive Components--Barium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Zinc by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    D4951 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements in Lubricating Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    D5185 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance

    D6792 Practice for Quality System in Petroleum Products and Lubricants Testing Laboratories


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15121501(Engine oil)


    DOI: 10.1520/D7040-04R10

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