Significance and Use
The parameters obtained from Methods A and B are in terms of undrained total stress (as already mentioned in 1.1). However, there are some cases where either the rock type or the loading condition of the problem under consideration will require the effective stress or drained parameters be determined.
Uniaxial compressive strength (Method C) of rock is used in many design formulas and is sometimes used as an index property to select the appropriate excavation technique. Deformation and strength of rock are known to be functions of confining pressure. The triaxial compression test (Method A) is commonly used to simulate the stress conditions under which most underground rock masses exist. The elastic constants (Methods B and D) are used to calculate the stress and deformation in rock structures.
The deformation and strength properties of rock cores measured in the laboratory usually do not accurately reflect large-scale in situ properties because the latter are strongly influenced by joints, faults, inhomogeneities, weakness planes, and other factors. Therefore, laboratory values for intact specimens must be employed with proper judgment in engineering applications.
Note 2—Notwithstanding the statements on precision and bias contained in this test method; the measures of precision of these test methods are dependent on the competence of the personnel performing them, and on the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing. Users of this test method are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable testing. Reliable testing depends on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means for evaluating some of those factors.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the strength of intact rock core specimens in uniaxial and triaxial compression. The tests provide data in determining the strength of rock, namely: the uniaxial strength, shear strengths at different pressures and different elevated temperatures, angle of internal friction, (angle of shearing resistance), and cohesion intercept. The test methods specify the apparatus, instrumentation, and procedures for determining the stress-axial strain and the stress-lateral strain curves, as well as Young's modulus, E, and Poisson's ratio, υ. It should be observed that these methods make no provision for pore pressure measurements and specimens are undrained (platens are not vented). Thus the strength values determined are in terms of total stress, that is, are not corrected for pore pressures. These test methods do not include the procedures necessary to obtain a stress-strain curve beyond the ultimate strength.
1.2 This standard replaces and combines the following Standard Test Methods: D2664 Triaxial Compressive Strength of Undrained Rock Core Specimens Without Pore Pressure Measurements; D5407 Elastic Moduli of Undrained Rock Core Specimens in Triaxial Compression Without Pore Pressure Measurements; D2938 Unconfined Compressive Strength of Intact Rock Core Specimens; and D3148 Elastic Moduli of Intact Rock Core Specimens in Uniaxial Compression. The original four standards are now referred to as Methods in this standard.
1.2.1 Method A: Triaxial Compressive Strength of Undrained Rock Core Specimens Without Pore Pressure Measurements.
1.2.2 Method B: Elastic Moduli of Undrained Rock Core Specimens in Triaxial Compression Without Pore Pressure Measurements.
1.2.3 Method C: Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Intact Rock Core Specimens.
1.2.4 Method D: Elastic Moduli of Intact Rock Core Specimens in Uniaxial Compression.
1.2.5 Option A: Elevated Temperatures.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D2845 Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Pulse Velocities and Ultrasonic Elastic Constants of Rock
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4543 Practices for Preparing Rock Core as Cylindrical Test Specimens and Verifying Conformance to Dimensional and Shape Tolerances
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
bulk modulus; compression testing; compressive strength; confined compression; elastic moduli; loading tests; modulus of elasticity; Mohr stress circle; Poisson’s ratio; repeatability; reproducibility; rock; shear modulus; triaxial compression; uniaxial compression; Young's modulus; Compression testing--rock/related materials; Elastic modulus; Intact rock strength; Rock drilling/coring/investigation;
ICS Number Code 13.080.20 (Physical properties of soil)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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