Significance and Use
5.1 This practice covers test arrangements, measurement techniques, sampling methods, and calculations to be used for nondestructive evaluation of geomembranes using ultrasonic testing.
5.2 Wave velocity may be established for particular geomembranes (for specific polymer type, specific formulation, specific density). Relationships may be established between velocity and both density and tensile properties of geomembranes. An example of the use of ultrasound for determining density of polyethylene is presented in Test Method D4883. Velocity measurements may be used to determine thickness of geomembranes (1, 2). Travel time and amplitude of transmitted waves may be used to assess the condition of geomembranes and to identify defects in geomembranes including surface defects (for example, scratches, cuts), inner defects (for example, discontinuities within geomembranes), and defects that penetrate the entire thickness of geomembranes (for example, pinholes) (3, 4). Bonding between geomembrane sheets can be evaluated using travel time, velocity, or impedance measurements for seam assessment (5-10). Examples of the use of ultrasonic testing for determining the integrity of field and factory seams through travel time and velocity measurements (resulting in thickness measurements) are presented in Practices D4437 and D4545, respectively. An ultrasonic testing device is routinely used for evaluating seams in prefabricated bituminous geomembranes in the field (11). Integrity of geomembranes may be monitored in time using ultrasonic measurements.
—Differences may exist between ultrasonic measurements and measurements made using other methods due to differences in test conditions such as pressure applied and probe dimensions. An example is ultrasonic and mechanical thickness measurements.
5.3 The method is applicable to testing both in the laboratory and in the field for parent material and seams. The test durations are very short as wave transmission through geomembranes occurs within microseconds.
1.1 This practice provides a summary of equipment and procedures for ultrasonic testing of geomembranes using the pulse echo method.
1.2 Ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is correlated to physical and mechanical properties and condition of the materials. In ultrasonic testing, two wave propagation characteristics are commonly determined: velocity (based on wave travel time measurements) and attenuation (based on wave amplitude measurements). Velocity of wave propagation is used to determine thickness, density, and elastic properties of materials. Attenuation of waves in solid materials is used to determine microstructural properties of the materials. In addition, frequency characteristics of waves are analyzed to investigate the properties of a test material. Travel time, amplitude, and frequency distribution measurements are used to assess the condition of materials to identify damage and defects in solid materials. Ultrasonic measurements are used to determine the nature of materials/media in contact with a test specimen as well. Measurements are conducted in the time-domain (time versus amplitude) or frequency-domain (frequency versus amplitude).
1.3 Measurements of one or more ultrasonic wave transmission characteristics are made based on the requirements of the specific testing program.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D4437 Practice for Non-destructive Testing (NDT) for Determining the Integrity of Seams Used in Joining Flexible Polymeric Sheet Geomembranes
D4545 Practice for Determining the Integrity of Factory Seams Used in Joining Manufactured Flexible Sheet Geomembranes
D4883 Test Method for Density of Polyethylene by the Ultrasound Technique
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
attenuation; geomembrane; mechanical waves; nondestructive; ultrasonic; wave velocity;
ICS Number Code 59.080.70 (Geotextiles)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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