ASTM D6995 - 05(2013)

    Standard Test Method for Determining Field VMA based on the Maximum Specific Gravity of the Mix (Gmm)

    Active Standard ASTM D6995 | Developed by Subcommittee: D04.21

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.03


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Various users desire indication of compliance with VMA specifications for hot mix asphalt (HMA) during production.

    4.2 The standard practice for determining VMA requires that the bulk specific gravity of the aggregate components be determined. This is a very time consuming test, which is not suitable for routine QC procedures.

    4.3 When an aggregate source used in the mix has a highly variable bulk specific gravity and a reference average bulk specific gravity (Gsb) (for example, as established in the mix design) is used to calculate VMA during HMA production, erroneous values may occur.

    4.4 The test for maximum specific gravity of the mix (Gmm) is a routine QC test at HMA plants. The effective specific gravity of the aggregate components (Gse) can be easily calculated from this test. However the Gse does not take into account the amount of asphalt absorbed, which is required for accurate VMA determination. This method provides a means to correct the Gse to account for the average absorbed asphalt. This procedure should not be used if the percent water absorption of the total (combined) aggregates varies between four tests, randomly obtained over a 30 day period, by more than 0.4 %.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method is intended to be used for a rapid field determination of voids in mineral aggregate (VMA) of hot mix asphalt (HMA). It provides equations for calculating the VMA based on the asphalt content of the mix and its maximum specific gravity (Gmm). It is intended that this should be used for the rapid “field” determination of VMA during Quality Control (QC) operations at HMA plants, particularly where the specific gravity of the aggregate is highly variable.

    1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C127 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate

    C128 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate

    D70 Test Method for Density of Semi-Solid Bituminous Materials (Pycnometer Method)

    D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer

    D2041 Test Method for Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity and Density of Bituminous Paving Mixtures

    D2172 Test Methods for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen From Bituminous Paving Mixtures

    D2726 Test Method for Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of Non-Absorptive Compacted Bituminous Mixtures

    D6307 Test Method for Asphalt Content of Hot-Mix Asphalt by Ignition Method


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 93.080.20 (Road construction materials)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 30111800(Aggregates); 30111600(Cement and lime)


    DOI: 10.1520/D6995

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