Active Standard ASTM D6991 | Developed by Subcommittee: D01.23
Book of Standards Volume: 06.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
Stresses in coatings arise as a result of their shrinkage or expansion if expected movements are prevented by coating adhesion to its substrate.
There are several causes leading to arrival of stresses in the coatings: film formation (cross-linking, solvent evaporation, etc.); differences in thermal expansion coefficients between coating and substrate; humidity and water absorption; environmental effects (ultraviolet radiation, temperature and humidity), and others.
Knowledge of the internal stresses in coatings is very important because they may effect coating performance and service life. If the internal stress exceeds the tensile strength of the film, cracks are formed. If stress exceeds adhesion between coating and substrate, it will reduce adhesion and can lead to delamination of coatings. Quantitative information about stresses in coatings can be useful in coating formulation and recommendations for their application and use.
This method has been found useful for air-dry industrial organic coatings but the applicability has not yet been assessed for thin coatings (thickness <0.0254 mm (.001 in.), for powder and thermally-cured coatings.
1.1 This test method covers the procedure for measurements of internal stresses in organic coatings by using the cantilever (beam) method.
1.2 This method is appropriate for the coatings for which the modulus of elasticity of substrate (Es) is significantly greater than the modulus of elasticity of coating (Ec) and for which the thickness of substrate is significantly greater than thickness of coating (see Note 4 and Note 5).
1.3 The stress values are limited by the adhesion values of coating to the substrate and by the tensile strength of the coating, or both.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D823 Practices for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness of Paint, Varnish, and Related Products on Test Panels
D1186 Test Methods for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Nonmagnetic Coatings Applied to a Ferrous Base
D1400 Test Method for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Nonconductive Coatings Applied to a Nonferrous Metal Base
ICS Number Code 25.220.60 (Organic coatings)