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Significance and Use
Bucket augers are relatively inexpensive, readily available, available in different types depending on the media to be sampled, and most can be easily operated by one person. They collect a reasonably cylindrical but disturbed sample of surface or subsurface soil or waste. They are generally not suited for sampling gravelly or coarser soil and are unsuitable for sampling rock.
Bucket augers are commonly used equipment because they are inexpensive to operate, especially compared to powered equipment (that is, direct push and drill rigs). When evaluated against screw augers, bucket augers generally collect larger samples with less chance of mixing with soil from shallow depths because the sample is retained within the auger barrel. Bucket augers are commonly used to depths of 3 m but have been used to much greater depths depending upon the soil or waste characteristics. The sampling depth is limited by the force required to rotate the auger and the depth at which the borehole collapses (unless bore casings or liners are used).
Bucket augers may not be suitable for the collection of samples for determination of volatile organic compounds because the sample is disturbed during the collection process, which may lead to losses resulting in a chemically unrepresentative sample.
1.1 This practice describes the procedures and equipment used to collect surface and subsurface soil and contaminated media samples for chemical analysis using a hand-operated bucket auger (hereafter referred to as a bucket auger; sometimes referred to as a barrel auger). Several types of bucket augers exist and are designed for sampling various types of soil. All bucket augers collect disturbed samples, but bucket augers can also be used to auger to the desired sampling depth and then, using a core-type sampler, collect a relatively undisturbed sample.
1.2 This practice does not cover the use of large (12-in. or greater diameter) bucket augers mechanically operated by large drill rigs or similar equipment, such as those described in Practice D1452, section 3.2.4.
1.3 The term bucket auger is used to differentiate this type of hand operated auger from others of the solid or hollow stem types that are also hand held or operated.
1.4 This practice does not address sampling objectives (see Practice D5792), general sample planning (see Guide D4687), sampling design (for example, where to collect samples and what depth to sample [see Guide D6044]), sampling for volatile organic compounds (see Guide D4547), equipment cleaning and decontamination (see Practice D5088), sample handling after collection such as compositing and subsampling (see Guide D6051), and sample preservation. For information on other types of augers, see Practice D1452 and Guide D4700.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
D4547 Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
D4687 Guide for General Planning of Waste Sampling
D4700 Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5283 Practice for Generation of Environmental Data Related to Waste Management Activities: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Planning and Implementation
D5434 Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
D5681 Terminology for Waste and Waste Management
D5792 Practice for Generation of Environmental Data Related to Waste Management Activities: Development of Data Quality Objectives
D6044 Guide for Representative Sampling for Management of Waste and Contaminated Media
D6051 Guide for Composite Sampling and Field Subsampling for Environmental Waste Management Activities
D6232 Guide for Selection of Sampling Equipment for Waste and Contaminated Media Data Collection Activities
D6282 Guide for Direct Push Soil Sampling for Environmental Site Characterizations
D6286 Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization
ICS Number Code 13.080.05 (Examination of soil in general)
UNSPSC Code 41104000(Sampling equipment); 41113800(Geophysical and geotechnical instruments)