Significance and Use
Background—In the HEUI fuel system, the engine oil from the oil sump not only lubricates the engine, it also supplies a high-pressure oil system that takes oil from the main gallery and pressurizes it up to 20.7 MPa in a plunger pump (see Fig. A1.1). This oil is used to operate unit injectors that, when used in combination with intensifiers, increase the fuel injection pressure up to 145 MPa, independent of engine speed. The electronic controls permit varied injection timing and duration to provide optimum fuel economy and emissions. This system may, however, circulate all the oil in the sump in approximately 8 s; as a consequence, aeration of the oil can occur with some engine oils. International determined that 8 % oil aeration was the limit beyond which engine operation and performance would be impaired in actual service.
Prior to 1994, the ability of an engine lubricant to resist aeration was measured by Test Method D892. During the development of the API CG-4 category in 1994, however, it was found that this bench test did not correlate with aeration in the International T 444E engine. The EOAT was developed, therefore, to provide a better measurement of the ability of a lubricant to resist aeration during engine operation. This test has been included in API CG-4, CH-4, and CI-4 categories for heavy-duty diesel engine oils.
Method—The data obtained from the use of this test method provide a comparative index of the aeration resistance of engine oils used in medium- and heavy-duty truck diesel engines.
Use—The tendency of engine oils to aerate in direct-injection, turbocharged diesel engines is influenced by a variety of factors, including engine oil formulation variables, oil temperature, sump design and capacity, residence time of the oil in the sump, and the design of the pressurized oil systems. In some engine-oil-activated injection systems, the residence time of the oil in the sump is insufficient to allow dissipation of aeration from the oil. As a consequence, aerated oil can be circulated to the injector intensifiers, adversely affecting the injection timing characteristics and engine operation.
1.1 This test method was designed to evaluate an engine oil's resistance to aeration in automotive diesel engine service. It is commonly referred to as the Engine Oil Aeration Test (EOAT). The test is conducted using a specified 7.3L, direct-injection, turbocharged diesel engine on a dynamometer test stand. This test method was developed as a replacement for Test Method D892 after it was determined that this bench test did not correlate with oil aeration in actual service. The EOAT was first included in API Service Category CG-4 in 1995.
Note 1—Companion test methods used to evaluate engine oil performance for specification requirements are discussed in the latest revision of Specification D4485.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.2.1 Exception—Where there is no direct SI equivalent, for example, screw threads, national pipe threads/diameters, and tubing size.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test
D287 Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products
D524 Test Method for Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products
D613 Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D892 Test Method for Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils
D1250 Guide for Use of the Petroleum Measurement Tables
D1319 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption
D2500 Test Method for Cloud Point of Petroleum Products
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2709 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants
D4485 Specification for Performance of Active API Service Category Engine Oils
D4737 Test Method for Calculated Cetane Index by Four Variable Equation
D5844 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Rusting (Sequence IID)
D5862 Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils in Two-Stroke Cycle Turbo-Supercharged 6V92TA Diesel Engine
D6082 Test Method for High Temperature Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils
D6557 Test Method for Evaluation of Rust Preventive Characteristics of Automotive Engine Oils
D6594 Test Method for Evaluation of Corrosiveness of Diesel Engine Oil at 135C
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
J304 Engine Oil Tests
API1509 Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System
aeration; automotive; diesel engine; EOAT; foaming; heavy-duty; HEUI; medium-duty; Hydraulically-actuated, electronically-controlled unit injector (HEUI); Test engines; Aeration resistance; ASTM Test Monitoring Center (TMC); Automotive engine fuels/oils; Diesel engine fuel oils; EOAT (engine oil aeration test); Foaming properties; Heavy-duty engines; High-pressure testing ;
ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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