ASTM D6837 - 13

    Standard Test Method for Measurement of Effects of Automotive Engine Oils on Fuel Economy of Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks in Sequence VIB Spark Ignition Engine

    Active Standard ASTM D6837 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.B0.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.03


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Test Method—The data obtained from the use of this test method provide a comparative index of the fuel-saving capabilities of automotive engine oils under repeatable laboratory conditions. A baseline calibration oil (hereafter referred to as BC oil) has been established for this test to provide a standard against which all other oils can be compared. The BC oil is an SAE 5W-30 grade fully formulated lubricant. There is a direct correlation of Test Method D6837 (Sequence VIB) Fuel Economy Improvement (FEI) by percent with the fuel economy results obtained from vehicles representative of current production running under the current EPA testing cycles. The test procedure was not designed to give a precise estimate of the difference between two test oils without adequate replication. Rather, it was developed to compare a test oil to BC oil. Companion test methods used to evaluate engine oil performance for specification requirements are discussed in the latest revision of Specification D4485.

    5.2 Use—The Sequence VIB test method is useful for engine oil fuel economy specification acceptance. It is used in specifications and classifications of engine lubricating oils, such as the following:

    5.2.1 Specification D4485.

    5.2.2 API Publication 1509.

    5.2.3 SAE Classification J304.

    5.2.4 SAE Classification J1423.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers an engine test procedure for the measurement of the effects of automotive engine oils on the fuel economy of passenger cars and light-duty trucks with gross vehicle weight of 3856 kg or less. The tests are conducted on a dynamometer test stand using a specified spark-ignition engine with a displacement of 4.6-L. It applies to multiviscosity grade oils used in these applications.

    1.2 This test method also provides for the running of an abbreviated length test that is referred to as the VIBSJ. The procedure for VIBSJ is identical to the Sequence VIB with the exception of the items specifically listed in Annex A13. The procedure modifications listed in Annex A13 refer to the corresponding section of the Sequence VIB test method.

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.3.1 Exceptions—Where there is no direct SI equivalent such as screw threads, National Pipe Threads/diameters, tubing size, or single source supply equipment specifications. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption is measured in kilograms per kilowatthour. In Figs. A2.4, A2.5, and A2.8, inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.5 This test method is arranged as follows:

    Subject

    Section

    Introduction

     

    Scope

    1

    Referenced Documents

    2

    Terminology

    3

    Summary of Test Method

    4

    Significance and Use

    5

    Apparatus

    6

     General

    6.1

     Test Engine Configuration

    6.2

     Laboratory Ambient Conditions

    6.3

     Engine Speed and Torque Control

    6.4

      Dynamometer

    6.4.1

      Dynamometer Torque

    6.4.2

     Engine Cooling System

    6.5

     External Oil System

    6.6

     Fuel System

    6.7

      Fuel Flow Measurement

    6.7.2

      Fuel Temperature and Pressure Control to
       the Fuel Flowmeter

    6.7.3

      Fuel Temperature and Pressure Control to
       Engine Fuel Rail

    6.7.4

     Fuel Supply Pumps

    6.7.5

      Fuel Filtering

    6.7.6

     Engine Intake Air Supply

    6.8

      Intake Air Humidity

    6.8.1

      Intake Air Filtration

    6.8.2

      Intake Air Pressure Relief

    6.8.3

     Temperature Measurement

    6.9

      Thermocouple Location

    6.9.5

     AFR Determination

    6.10

     Exhaust and Exhaust Back Pressure Systems

    6.11

      Exhaust Manifolds

    6.11.1

      Laboratory Exhaust System

    6.11.2

      Exhaust Back Pressure

    6.11.3

     Pressure Measurement and Pressure Sensor
      Locations

    6.12

      Engine Oil

    6.12.2

      Fuel to Fuel Flowmeter

    6.12.3

      Fuel to Engine Fuel Rail

    6.12.4

      Exhaust Back Pressure

    6.12.5

      Intake Air

    6.12.6

      Intake Manifold Vacuum/Absolute Pressure

    6.12.7

      Coolant Flow Differential Pressure

    6.12.8

      Crankcase Pressure

    6.12.9

     Engine Hardware and Related Apparatus

    6.13

      Test Engine Configuration

    6.13.1

      ECM/EEC (Engine Control) Module

    6.13.2

      Thermostat/Orifice Plate

    6.13.3

      Intake Manifold

    6.13.4

      Flywheel

    6.13.5

      Wiring Harnesses

    6.13.6

      EGR Block-Off Plate

    6.13.7

      Oil Pan

    6.13.8

      Oil Pump Screen and Pickup Tube

    6.13.9

      Idle Speed Control Solenoid (ISC) Block-Off
       Plate

    6.13.10

      Engine Water Pump

    6.13.11

      Thermostat Housing

    6.13.12

      Oil Filter Adapter

    6.13.13

      Fuel Rail

    6.13.14

     Miscellaneous Apparatus Related to Engine
      Operation

    6.14

      Timing Light

    6.14.1

    Reagents and Materials

    7

     Engine Oil

    7.1

     Test Fuel

    7.2

     Engine Coolant

    7.3

     Cleaning Materials

    7.4

    Preparation of Apparatus

    8

     Test Stand Preparation

    8.2

    Engine Preparation

    9

     Cleaning of Engine Parts

    9.2

     Engine Assembly Procedure

    9.3

      General Assembly Instructions

    9.3.1

      Bolt Torque Specifications

    9.3.2

      Sealing Compounds

    9.3.3

      Harmonic Balancer

    9.3.5

      Oil Pan

    9.3.6

      Intake Manifold

    9.3.7

      Camshaft Covers

    9.3.8

      Thermostat

    9.3.9

      Thermostat Housing

    9.3.10

      Coolant Inlet

    9.3.11

      Oil Filter Adapter

    9.3.12

      Dipstick Tube

    9.3.13

      Water Pump

    9.3.14

      Sensors, Switches, Valves, and Positioners

    9.3.15

      Ignition System

    9.3.16

      Fuel Injection System

    9.3.17

      Intake Air System

    9.3.18

      Engine Management System (Spark and Fuel
       Control)

    9.3.19

      Accessory Drive Units

    9.3.20

      Exhaust Manifolds

    9.3.21

      Engine Flywheel and Guards

    9.3.22

      Lifting of Assembled Engines

    9.3.23

      Engine Mounts

    9.3.24

    Calibration

    10

     Stand/Engine Calibration

    10.1

      Procedure

    10.1.1

      Reporting of Reference Results

    10.1.2

      Analysis of Reference/Calibration Oils

    10.1.3

      Instrument Calibration

    10.2

      Engine Torque Measurement System

    10.2.1

      Fuel Flow Measurement System

    10.2.2

      Coolant Flow Measurement System

    10.2.3

      Thermocouple and Temperature Measurement
       System

    10.2.4

      Humidity Measurement System

    10.2.5

      Other Instrumentation

    10.2.6

    Test Procedure

    11

     Preparation for Initial Start-up of New Engine

    11.1

      External Oil System

    11.1.1

      Flush Effectiveness Demonstration

    11.1.2

      Preparation for Oil Charge

    11.1.3

      Oil Charge for Coolant Flush

    11.1.4

      Engine Coolant Charge for Coolant Flush

    11.1.5

     Initial Engine Start-up


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure

    D235 Specification for Mineral Spirits (Petroleum Spirits) (Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent)

    D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter

    D287 Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)

    D323 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)

    D381 Test Method for Gum Content in Fuels by Jet Evaporation

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D525 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Gasoline (Induction Period Method)

    D1319 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption

    D2699 Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel

    D3231 Test Method for Phosphorus in Gasoline

    D3237 Test Method for Lead in Gasoline by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    D3338 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels

    D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants

    D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D4485 Specification for Performance of Active API Service Category Engine Oils

    D6557 Test Method for Evaluation of Rust Preventive Characteristics of Automotive Engine Oils

    D6750 Test Methods for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High-Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine--1K Procedure (0.4 % Fuel Sulfur) and 1N Procedure (0.04 % Fuel Sulfur)

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    E191 Specification for Apparatus For Microdetermination of Carbon and Hydrogen in Organic and Organo-Metallic Compounds

    SAE Standards

    J304 Engine Oil Tests

    J1423 Classification of Energy-Conserving Engine Oil for Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks

    API Publication

    API 1509 Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System

    ANSI Standard

    ANSI MC96.1-1975 Temperature Measurement - Thermocouples


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 43.060.40 (Fuel systems)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15121501(Engine oil)


    DOI: 10.1520/D6837

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