This specification covers four grades of fuel oil made of used lubricating oils. These four grades of fuel are proposed for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning industrial equipment and commercial boilers under various climatic and operating conditions. The four grades of fuel oil covered in this specification are RFC4, RFC5L, RFC5H, and RFC6. The fuel oils shall contain a minimum volume of used lubricating oil-derived products as prescribed herein. The oils shall also be homogeneous consisting primarily of hydrocarbons. The fuel oil shall not contain excessive amounts of organic or inorganic acids, or both, and shall be free of solid or fibrous matter.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification covers four grades of fuel oil made of at least 25 % used lubricating oils. The four grades of fuel are intended for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning industrial equipment and commercial boilers under various climatic and operating conditions. These fuels are not intended for use in residential heaters.
1.1.1 Grades RFC4, RFC5L, RFC5H and RFC6 are used lubricating oil blends of increasing viscosity, with or without middle distillate or residual fuel oil, or both, that are intended for use in industrial burners and commercial boilers equipped to handle these types of fuels. This specification is for applications where Specification D 6448 would not meet the performance or other requirements of the burner or boiler in question.
Note 1—For information on the significance of the terminology and test methods used in this specification, see Appendix X1.
1.2 This specification is for use in contracts for the purchase of fuel oils derived from used lubricating oil and for the guidance of consumers of such fuels. This specification does not address the frequency with which any particular test must be run.
1.3 Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of national or local regulations which can be more restrictive. In some jurisdictions, used oil is considered a hazardous waste and fuels derived from used oil are required to meet certain criteria before use as a fuel.
Note 2—For United States federal requirements imposed on used oil generators, transporters and transfer facilities, reprocessors, marketers, and burners, see 40 CFR Part 279.
Note 3—The generation and dissipation of static electricity can create problems in the handling of distillate burner fuel oils. For more information on the subject, see Guide D 4865.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4.1 Exception—Table 1 and Table X1.1 include inch-pound values in parentheses for information only.
TABLE 1 Detailed Requirements for Non-Industrial Burner Fuels from Used Lubricating Oils
|Viscosity at 100°C mm2/sC||D 445|
| min||. . .||. . .||5.0||9.0||15.0|
| max||. . .||<5.0||8.9||14.9||50.0|
|Flash point, °C (°F), min||D 93, Procedure B||38 (100)||55 (130)||55 (130)||60 (140)|
|Water and sediment,D % volume max||D 1796||1.0||1.0||2.0||2.0|
|Pour point, °C (°F), max||D 97||-6 (21)||E||E||E|
|Density, kg/m3 at 15°CF||D 1298||Report||Report||Report||Report|
|Acid no., mg KOH/g, max||D 664||0.15||0.15||0.30||0.30|
|Ash, % mass, maxG||D 482||0.2||0.3||0.3||Report|
|Sulfur, % massH||D 129||Report||Report||Report||Report|
|Gross heating value, MJ/kg (BTU/gal),I min||D 240||40.0 (130 000)||41.5 (135 000)||41.5 (135 000)||43.0 (140 000)|
|Arsenic, ppm, max.||K||5|
|Cadmium, ppm, max||K||2|
|Chromium, ppm, max||D 5185K||10|
|Lead, ppm, max||D 5185K||100|
|Total halogens, ppm, max||D 5384K||1000|
|PCBs, ppm, max||D 6160||50L|
A See Section 8 for details and additional test methods.
B Units given in parentheses are for informational purposes only.
C 1 cSt = 1 mm2/s.
D Solids content shall not exceed 0.5 %. Filtration may be required to obtain appropriate particle size for use. A deduction in quantity shall be made for all water and sediment in excess of 1.0 mass % for Grades RFC5H and RFC6.
E Buyer and seller to agree.
F Density in kg/L at 15°C multiplied by 1000 = kg/m3.
G Buyer and seller may agree on a higher ash content.
H Local jurisdictions may limit the sulfur content in burner fuels.
I Assumes 7.5 lb/US gal.
J These are US EPA current limits (40 CFR Part 279 and 40 CFR Part 761). If state or local requirements for used oil are more stringent, the burner fuel offered shall comply with the more stringent requirements.
K US EPA SW-846 6010. Where Test Method D 5185 is listed, Test Method D 5185 will be the referee test method.
L In the United States, current unrestricted use IAW 40 CFR Part 279 is <2 ppm. PCBs are permitted in qualified incinerators as defined in 40 CFR Part 761. US EPA prohibits blending down oils of >50 ppm to <50 ppm and oils <50 ppm to less than 2 ppm.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D95 Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter
D396 Specification for Fuel Oils
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D473 Test Method for Sediment in Crude Oils and Fuel Oils by the Extraction Method
D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D974 Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration
D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method)
D1796 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Fuel Oils by the Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure)
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2983 Test Method for Low-Temperature Viscosity of Lubricants Measured by Brookfield Viscometer
D3228 Test Method for Total Nitrogen in Lubricating Oils and Fuel Oils by Modified Kjeldahl Method
D3245 Test Method for Pumpability of Industrial Fuel Oils
D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4629 Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection
D4865 Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems
D4868 Test Method for Estimation of Net and Gross Heat of Combustion of Burner and Diesel Fuels
D5185 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D5291 Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D5384 Test Methods for Chlorine in Used Petroleum Products (Field Test Kit Method)
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D6160 Test Method for Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Waste Materials by Gas Chromatography
D6448 Specification for Industrial Burner Fuels from Used Lubricating Oils
D6450 Test Method for Flash Point by Continuously Closed Cup (CCCFP) Tester
D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)
U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
40CFRPart279 Standards for the Management of Used Oil
burner fuels; fuel oils; petroleum and petroleum products; specifications; used oils; Industrial petroleum products--specifications; Lubricating oils--specifications; Petroleum products--specifications; Used lubricating oils; Burner fuel oils--specifications; Commercial boiler fuels; Fuel oils--specifications;
ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)
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