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    ASTM D6813 - 02a(2013)

    Standard Guide for Performance Evaluation of Hydraulic Fluids for Piston Pumps

    Active Standard ASTM D6813 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.N0.07

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.03

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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Users of hydraulic equipment which includes piston pumps would like assurance that the fluids they use will allow their systems to operate safely with reasonable equipment life. This assurance is commonly provided by the fluid supplier in the form of results of standardized tests on the fluid, or demonstrated success in field use in similar systems, or both. This guide will help fluid developers and users develop testing protocols which demonstrate the suitability of a fluid for its intended use, including any required limitations on hydraulic system operating conditions.

    4.2 The significance and use of each test method cited in this guide will depend upon the system in use and the purpose of the test method. Use the most recent editions of ASTM test methods.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide covers the establishment of test protocols and methodologies for determining the suitability of fluids for use in fluid power systems that incorporate axial or radial piston pumps. The suitability of all fluid types to meet specific levels of performance in piston pumps is addressed. These fluids include, but are not limited to formulations based on mineral, synthetic or vegetable oil base stocks. The finished fluids may be in the form of straight oils, soluble oils or invert emulsions.

    1.2 The test protocols and methodologies described in this guide have been selected for their ability to distinguish between highly acceptable, acceptable and unacceptable fluid performance in piston pumps. They take into account the broad range of operating conditions piston pumps are subjected to, as well as the common variations in design and materials of construction among pump manufacturers.

    1.3 This guide is intended to complement proprietary test protocols and methodologies employed by some piston pump manufacturers. The test protocols and methodologies within this guide may help pump manufacturers, fluid formulators and end users accurately screen potential fluids for specific performance characteristics. The results of this screening may be sufficient in certain instances for pump manufacturers to forego requirements for additional fluid performance tests.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester

    D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

    D95 Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation

    D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products

    D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products

    D611 Test Methods for Aniline Point and Mixed Aniline Point of Petroleum Products and Hydrocarbon Solvents

    D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

    D665 Test Method for Rust-Preventing Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oil in the Presence of Water

    D874 Test Method for Sulfated Ash from Lubricating Oils and Additives

    D877 Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Liquids Using Disk Electrodes

    D892 Test Method for Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils

    D943 Test Method for Oxidation Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oils

    D974 Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration

    D1121 Test Method for Reserve Alkalinity of Engine Coolants and Antirusts

    D1123 Test Methods for Water in Engine Coolant Concentrate by the Karl Fischer Reagent Method

    D1169 Test Method for Specific Resistance (Resistivity) of Electrical Insulating Liquids

    D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method

    D1401 Test Method for Water Separability of Petroleum Oils and Synthetic Fluids

    D1500 Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)

    D1533 Test Method for Water in Insulating Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

    D2070 Test Method for Thermal Stability of Hydraulic Oils

    D2270 Practice for Calculating Viscosity Index from Kinematic Viscosity at 40 and 100C

    D2272 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Steam Turbine Oils by Rotating Pressure Vessel

    D2273 Test Method for Trace Sediment in Lubricating Oils

    D2422 Classification of Industrial Fluid Lubricants by Viscosity System

    D2619 Test Method for Hydrolytic Stability of Hydraulic Fluids (Beverage Bottle Method)

    D2624 Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity of Aviation and Distillate Fuels

    D2717 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Liquids

    D2766 Test Method for Specific Heat of Liquids and Solids

    D2783 Test Method for Measurement of Extreme-Pressure Properties of Lubricating Fluids (Four-Ball Method)

    D2879 Test Method for Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relationship and Initial Decomposition Temperature of Liquids by Isoteniscope

    D2882 Test Method for Indicating Wear Characteristics of Petroleum and Non-Petroleum Hydraulic Fluids in Constant Volume Vane Pump

    D2983 Test Method for Low-Temperature Viscosity of Lubricants Measured by Brookfield Viscometer

    D3427 Test Method for Air Release Properties of Petroleum Oils

    D3487 Specification for Mineral Insulating Oil Used in Electrical Apparatus

    D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

    D4172 Test Method for Wear Preventive Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method)

    D4293 Specification for Phosphate Ester Based Fluids for Turbine Lubrication

    D4308 Test Method for Electrical Conductivity of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Precision Meter

    D4310 Test Method for Determination of Sludging and Corrosion Tendencies of Inhibited Mineral Oils

    D4652 Specification for Silicone Fluid Used for Electrical Insulation

    D5182 Test Method for Evaluating the Scuffing Load Capacity of Oils (FZG Visual Method)

    D5185 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    D5222 Specification for High Fire-Point Mineral Electrical Insulating Oils

    D5534 Test Method for Vapor-Phase Rust-Preventing Characteristics of Hydraulic Fluids

    D5621 Test Method for Sonic Shear Stability of Hydraulic Fluids

    D6006 Guide for Assessing Biodegradability of Hydraulic Fluids

    D6046 Classification of Hydraulic Fluids for Environmental Impact

    D6080 Practice for Defining the Viscosity Characteristics of Hydraulic Fluids

    D6158 Specification for Mineral Hydraulic Oils

    D6304 Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

    D6376 Test Method for Determination of Trace Metals in Petroleum Coke by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    D6546 Test Methods for and Suggested Limits for Determining Compatibility of Elastomer Seals for Industrial Hydraulic Fluid Applications

    D6547 Test Method for Corrosiveness of Lubricating Fluid to Bimetallic Couple

    D6595 Test Method for Determination of Wear Metals and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils or Used Hydraulic Fluids by Rotating Disc Electrode Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    E70 Test Method for pH of Aqueous Solutions With the Glass Electrode

    E203 Test Method for Water Using Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration

    E659 Test Method for Autoignition Temperature of Liquid Chemicals

    F312 Test Methods for Microscopical Sizing and Counting Particles from Aerospace Fluids on Membrane Filters

    AFNOR Standards

    AFNOR NF E48-690 Hydraulic Fluid Power. Fluids. Measurement of Filterability of Mineral Oils

    AFNOR NF E48-691 Hydraulic Fluid Power. Fluids. Measurement of Filterability of Minerals Oils in the Presence of Water

    AFNOR NF E48-692 Hydraulic Fluid Power. Fluids. Measurement of Filterability of HFC and HFD Class Fire Resistant Fluids

    ANSI (NFPA) Standards

    ANSI/(NFPA) Standard T2.13.7R1-1996 Hydraulic Fluid Power--Petroleum Fluids--Prediction of Bulk Moduli

    ANSI/(NFPA) Standard T3.16.2-R1-1997 Hydraulic Fluid Power--Design for Nonintegral Industrial Reservoirs

    ANSI/(NFPA) Standard T3.9.20-1992 Hydraulic Fluid Power--Pumps--Method of Testing and Presenting Basic Performance Data for Pressure Compensated Pumps

    ANSI/(NFPA) Standard T3.9.33-1997 Hydraulic Fluid Power--Pumps--Method of Testing and Presenting Basic Performance Data for Load Sensing Pumps

    ANSI/Standard NFPA/JIC T2.24.1-1990 Hydraulic Fluid Power--Systems Standard for Stationary Industrial Machinery

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.120 (Hydraulic fluids)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15121504(Hydraulic oil)

    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D6813

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D6813-02a(2013), Standard Guide for Performance Evaluation of Hydraulic Fluids for Piston Pumps, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013,

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