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Significance and Use
4.1 The quantitative determination of hindered phenol antioxidants in a new turbine oil measures the amount of this material that has been added to the oil as protection against oxidation. Beside phenols, turbine oils can be formulated with other antioxidants such as amines which can extend the oil life. In used oil, the determination measures the amount of original (phenolic) antioxidant remaining after oxidation have reduced its initial concentration. This test method is not designed or intended to detect all of the antioxidant intermediates formed during the thermal and oxidative stressing of the oils, which are recognized as having some contribution to the remaining useful life of the used or in-service oil. Nor does it measure the overall stability of an oil, which is determined by the total contribution of all species present. Before making final judgment on the remaining useful life of the used oil, which might result in the replacement of the oil reservoir, it is advised to perform additional analytical techniques (in accordance with Practices D6224 and D4378), having the capability of measuring remaining oxidative life of the used oil.
4.3 When a voltammetric analysis is obtained for a turbine oil inhibited with a typical hindered phenol antioxidant, there is an increase in the current of the produced voltammogram between 3-5 s (or 0.3 to 0.6 V applied voltage) (see Note 1) in the basic test solution (Fig. 1—x-axis 1 second = 0.1 V). Hindered phenol antioxidants detected by voltammetric analysis include, but are not limited to, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol; 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol and 4,4'-methylenebis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol).
4.4 For non-zinc turbine oils containing aromatic (aryl) amine compounds (antioxidants and corrosion inhibitors), there is an increase in the current of the produced voltammogram between 7-11 s (0.7 to 1.1 V applied voltage in Fig. 2) (see Note 1) which does not interfere with the hindered phenol measurement in the basic test solution. For the measurement of these aromatic amine antioxidants, refer to Test Method D6971, where the neutral test solution shall be used.
1.1 This test method covers the voltammetric determination of hindered phenol antioxidants in new or in-service non-zinc turbine oils in concentrations from 0.0075 weight % up to concentrations found in new oils by measuring the amount of current flow at a specified voltage in the produced voltammogram.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4378 Practice for In-Service Monitoring of Mineral Turbine Oils for Steam, Gas, and Combined Cycle Turbines
D6224 Practice for In-Service Monitoring of Lubricating Oil for Auxiliary Power Plant Equipment
D6447 Test Method for Hydroperoxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels by Voltammetric Analysis
D6971 Test Method for Measurement of Hindered Phenolic and Aromatic Amine Antioxidant Content in Non-zinc Turbine Oils by Linear Sweep Voltammetry
ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)
UNSPSC Code 15121527(Turbine oil)